پهنه‌بندی اقلیمی-زراعی و امکان سنجی کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در استان‌های خراسان رضوی و جنوبی

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

کشت پاییزه چغندرقند از نظر اقتصادی و کارآیی مصرف آب مزیت بیشتری نسبت به کشت بهاره آن دارد. کشت چغندرقند در استان‌های خراسان رضوی و جنوبی فقط به صورت بهاره انجام می‌شود، از این رو امکان‌سنجی کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در این مناطق ضرورت داشت. بهترین و کم هزینه‌ترین روش جهت شناسایی مناطق مستعد، استفاده از سیستم‌های اطلاعات جغرافیایی است. بدین منظور عناصر اقلیمی دما و بارش این استان‌ها جمع‌آوری گردید. سپس احتمال وقوع واحدهای حرارتی تجمعی، شاخص قابلیت تولید زیست توده، ساعات بهاره شدن، یخ‌زدگی، بارندگی و طول روز برای هر ایستگاه محاسبه گردید. لایه‌های شیب و ارتفاع مناطق از مدل رقومی ارتفاع استخراج گردید. سپس نقشه پهنه‌بندی لایه‌های مؤثر و هم‎چنین نقشه نهایی با استفاده از روش سلسله مراتبی در محیط ARC GIS تهیه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در بسیاری از مناطق خراسان رضوی و نواحی مرکزی خراسان جنوبی احتمال ساقه‌وری بوته‌های چغندرقند وجود دارد. تنها در مناطق جنوب غربی استان خراسان جنوبی مجموع ساعات بهاره‌شدن کمتر از مقدار مورد نیاز چغندرقند می‌باشد. گرچه بارش کمتر از 50 میلی‎متر در طول فصل زراعی در مناطق جنوبی استان خراسان جنوبی مزیت این کاشت را در این مناطق کاهش می‌دهد. بیشتر مناطقی که بارش بیش از 190 میلی‎متر دارند با خطر یخ‌زدگی، عدم دریافت درجه روز رشد (GDD) مناسب و بهاره شدن مواجه می‌باشند. بر اساس نقشه نهایی پهنه‌بندی 90/4 درصد اراضی زراعی این استان‌ها بسیار مناسب، 74/16 درصد مناسب، 98/47 درصد متوسط و 38/30 درصد نامناسب برای کاشت پاییزه چغندرقند تخمین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Agroclimatic zonation for evaluating autumn sugar beet sowing feasibility in Khorasan Razavi and Khorasan-e-Jonobi Provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.A. Javaheri 1
  • M. Ramroudi 2
  • M.R. Asgharipour 2
  • M. Dahmardeh 3
  • A.R. Ghaemi 4
1 PhD Student of Agronomy, Zabol University, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Khorasan Agricultural Research Center
چکیده [English]

Autumn sugar beet sowing has priority to its spring sowing in terms of economic productivity and water use efficiency. In Khorasan Razavi and Khorasan-e-Jonobi provinces, sugar beet is only sown in spring. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of autumn sugar beet sowing in these regions. Using geographical information systems is the best and inexpensive way to identify suitable areas for the crop sowing. Therefore, climatic information such as temperature and rainfall were collected. Then, cumulative thermal units, biomass productivity index, vernalization time, freez risk, rainfall occurrence and day length were estimated for each station. The computed values of climatic parameters were all converted to point data in ArcGIS environment. Results showed that in most of the Khorasan Razavi regions and central regions of Khorasan-e-Jonobi, there is a risk of bolting. In southwestern Khorasan-e-Jonobi, the total hours needed for sugar beet vernalization is less than the required time. However, less than 50 mm rainfall in this area is another limitation for sugar beet autumn sowing. Also, in areas with more than 190 mm rainfall, there is a risk of freezing, lack of optimal growing degree days (GDD), and vernalization. Based on final zoning map, 4.90% of the lands in these provinces were most favorable, 16.74% as favorable, 47.98% as medium, and 30.38% were not favorable for autumn sugar beet sowing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agroclimatic zonation
  • Autumn sowing
  • GIS
  • sugar beet
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