تعیین مناسبترین آرایش کاشت چغندرقند تحت شرایط آبیاری نواری - قطره ای

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند

2 مربی پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی

چکیده

در ایران همانند دیگر مناطق خشک و نیمه‎خشک جهان جهت استمرار تولید محصولات زراعی به همراه استفاده از گیاهان مقاوم به کم‎آبی، مدیریت مصرف آّب نیز باید مدنظر قرار گیرد. در این راستا استفاده از روش آبیاری نواری- قطره‎ای (تیپ) می‎تواند موجب کاهش مصرف آب آبیاری گردد. تحقیق حاضر به منظور تعیین آرایش مناسب کاشت چغندرقند تحت شرایط آبیاری نواری - قطره‎ای در ایستگاه مهندس مطهری مؤسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند واقع در کرج طی دو سال 1388 و 1389 اجرا گردید. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصـادفی با هفت تـیمار شامل آرایش کشت با فـواصل ردیـف‎های کاشت 45، 50، 60، 50-40 و 60-40 سانتی‎متر و قرار دادن نوارهای تیپ به‎صورت یک در میان بین خطوط کاشت و دو آرایش کشت با فواصل ردیف 50 و 60 سانتی‎متر با قرار دادن نوارهای تیپ روی تمام خطوط کاشت، در سه تـکرار اجـرا شد. در این آزمایش اعمال مقادیر آب آبیاری در تیمارهای مورد بررسی تا حدامکان یکسان بود. مقایسات میانگین‎ها نشان داد که آرایش کشت ردیف‎های 60 سانتی‎متری با نوارهای تیپ یک در میان بین خطوط کشت به‎ترتیب دارای کمترین و بیشترین تعداد ریشه و مقدار پتاسیم در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها بود. هم‎چنین، مقایسه میانگین‎ها نشان داد که آرایش کشت 60-40 با آبیاری یک در میان و 50 سانتی‎متر با آبیاری کلیه ردیف‎های کاشت بیشترین مقدار عملکرد قندناخالص و شکر سفید و کارائی مصرف آب برای عملکرد شکرسفید را داشته‎اند. مهم‎ترین مانع گسترش روش آبیاری قطره‎ای- نواری، بالا بودن هزینه‎های اجرای این روش است. از آن‎جائی که در آرایش کاشت 60-40، مقدار مصرف نوارهای تیپ کمتر بوده و در نتیجه هزینه اجرای آن در مقایسه با آرایش کاشت 50 سانتی‎متر با آبیاری کلیه ردیف‎‎های کاشت پایین‎تر می‎یاشد، لذا استفاده از روش آبیاری نواری- قطره ای با آرایش کاشت 60-40 و قراردادن یک نوار آبیاری برای دو ردیف کشت توصیه می‎شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of suitable sowing pattern of sugar beet under tape drip irrigation system

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Mohammadian 1
  • Sadrahghan H. 2
1 Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Iran
2 Instructor of Agricultural Engineering Resources Institute, Iran.
چکیده [English]

For continues production if field crops in arid and semi arid regions of the world, such as Iran, beside of using of drought resistant varieties, water management must also be considered. In this context, the use of tape drip irrigation system could reduce the amount of irrigation water consumption. This study, was conducted to determine the best sowing pattern of sugar beet under type drip irrigation system, at Motahari station of Sugar beet seed institute(SBSI), Karaj, Iran during 2009 and 2010. Experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and seven treatments including sowing patterns with row distances of 45, 50, 60, 40-50 and 60- 40 cm and placing tapes every other rows and two sowing patterns with row distances of 50 and 60 cm and placing tapes on  all seeding rows. The amounts of water applied in all of the treatments were almost same. Results showed that row distances of 60 cm with placing tapes every other row led to the lowest and highest number of roots and amount of root potassium, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The highest sugar and white sugar yields and also water use efficiency for white sugar yield were achieved in sowing patterns with row distances of 60-40 cm and placing tapes every other rows and row distances of 50 cm and placing tapes on all seeding rows. High initial cost of tape drip irrigation is the most important factor preventing this system from spreading. Since the amount of applied tapes in the first sowing pattern, 40-60 cm, is less than the second sowing pattern, its costs are less. Therefore, sowing patterns with row seeding distances of 60-40 cm and placing tapes every other rows is recommend for cropping under tape irrigation system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sowing pattern
  • sugar beet
  • Tape drip irrigation system

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