استفاده از پلیمر در پوشش دار کردن بذر چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند- سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران

2 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 مربی پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف تعیین تأثیر پلیمرسنتز شده داخلی روی خصوصیات جوانه‏زنی و رشد گیاهچه بذر چغندرقند در آزمایشگاه، گلخانه و مزرعه در مؤسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند در کرج طی سال‏های 91-1389 انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کاملتصادفی در چهار تکرار و نه تیمار شامل بذربدون پوشش(شاهد)، بذرپوشش‏دار با پلیمرخارجی و هفت مقدار پلیمر(دز) داخلی(بین 0/5 تا 5/3 گرم به‏ازای یک‏صد گرم بذر) اجرا شد. قوهنامیه، وزنخشک ریشه‏چه و ساقه‏چه در آزمایشگاه، بنیه بذر در گلخانه و درصدسبز و عملکرد کمی و کیفی محصول در مزرعه اندازه‏گیری شد. جهت تعیین تأثیر احتمالی پوشش بر زوالبذر و میزان جوانه ‏زنی، در هفت نوبت و تأثیر در بنیه بذر در شش نوبت حداکثر تا 541 روز پساز پوشش‏دار شدن، نمونه‏برداری و بررسی شدند. نتایج حاکی از عدم وجود اختلاف معنی‏دار بین میانگین تیمارها از نظر میزان جوانه‏زنی بذر، درصدجوانه‏ های غیرعادی در آزمایشگاه و بنیه بذر در گلخانه بود. تیمارهای مختلف پوشش پلیمری در سطح احتمال یکدرصد بر وزن خشک ریشه‏ چه و ساقه‏ چه تأثیر معنی‏ داری داشتند. بیشترین وزن خشک ریشه‏ چه معادل 306/4 گرم مربوط به تیمار 0/5گرم همراه با بذربدون پوشش معادل 3/741 گرم و بیشترین وزن خشک ساقه‏ چه(2/463- 1/584گرم) مربوط به تیمارهای بذربدون پوشش، پلیمرخارجی و پلیمرداخلی با نسبت‏های0/5 تا یک گرم در 100 گرم بذر اختصاص داشت. روند زوالبذر نشان داد که پساز گذشت 141روز از فرآوری بذر، میزان جوانه‏زنی کاهش و درصدجوانه‏های غیرعادی افزایش یافت، اختلافات هر دو مورد در سطح احتمال یکدرصد معنیدار بودند. تغییرات صفات مورد اندازه‎گیری، برای تیمارهای بذربدون پوشش و بذر با پوشش پلیمری مشابه بود. تأثیر زمان بر بنیه بذر، در تیمارهای موردمطالعه در سطح احتمال یکدرصد اختلاف معنی‏داری نشان دادند و بیشترین بنیه(81/36-79/33 درصد) به تیمار پلیمرداخلی به‏ میزان یک تا 1/5گرم به‏ازای 100گرم بذر اختصاص داشت. عدمتأثیر معنی‏دار تیمارها بر تراکمبوته پیش و پساز عملیات تنک و در زمان برداشت نشان داد که پوشش بذر تأثیری بر استقرار بوته‎ در سطح مزرعه ندارد. باتوجه به نتایج این مطالعه مشخص گردید که تیمار پلیمرداخلی به‏میزان یک تا 1/5گرم به‏ ازای 100گرم بذر، جهت افزایش بنیه بذر در پروسه فرآوری نتیجه مطلوب دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Polymer utilization in sugar beet seed coating

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Hamdi 1
  • D. F. Taleghani 2
  • S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati 3
  • H. Noshad 4
1 Master Expert of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj,Iran
2 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj, Iran
4 Instructor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed at determining the effect of domestic synthesized polymer on germination and growth of sugar beet seedling in laboratory, greenhouse, and field. The study was conducted based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Karaj, Iran in 2010-2012. The treatments were uncoated (control) and coated seed with foreign polymer, and also seven domestic polymer doses (0.5-3.5 g/100 g seeds). The viability, leaflet and rootlet dry weight were measured in the laboratory, vigor was measured in the greenhouse, and germination rate together with quantitative and qualitative traits were measured in the field. To determine the effect of polymer coating on seed deterioration and germination rate, sampling was performed for seven times. For seed vigor, sampling was performed up to 541 days after coating for six times. No significant difference was observed among the studied treatments for seed germination rate, abnormal germination percentage in the laboratory and seed vigor in the greenhouse. However, polymer coating had significant (P<0.01) effect on leaflet and rootlet dry weights so that the highest rootlet dry weight (4.306 g) was obtained in 0.5 g/100 g seeds treatment compared to the uncoated seed with 3.741 g. The highest leaflet dry weight (1.2-584.463 g) was observed in uncoated seed, and coated seed with domestic and foreign polymers with 0.5-1.0 g/100 g seeds ratio. Seed deterioration showed that 141 days after seed processing, germination rate was significantly (P<0.01) decreased and abnormal germination percentage was increased (P<0.01). Nevertheless, these changes were similar for uncoated seeds and coated seeds with polymer. The effect of time on seed vigor was significant (P<0.01) and the highest seed vigor percentage (33.36-79.81) was found in domestic synthesized polymer with 1.0-1.5 g/100 g seeds. The lack of the significant influence of the studied treatments on plant density, before and after thinning and also at harvest, show that seed coating had no influence on plant establishment in the field. Based on the field results, it is recommended to apply domestic polymer for seed coating to not only maintain crop performance but also to manage the cost. The results of this study showed that application of domestic synthesized polymer at the rate of 1.0-1.5 g/100 g seeds is suitable for the increase of seed vigor in seed processing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Germination uniformity
  • polymer
  • Seed coat
  • Seed deterioration
  • sugar beet
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