بررسی ساختار جوامع و تنوع گونه‌ای علف‌های‌هرز مزارع چغندرقند استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیاردانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشدعلف هرزدانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

به منظور شناسایی و تعیین پوشش علف­هرز مزارع چغندرقند استان کرمانشاه، 92 مزرعه چغندرقند درپنج شهرستان این استان در سال ‌زراعی 1393 انتخاب و در دو مرحله نمونه­برداری( نیمه دوم اردیبهشت و اواخر شهریور ماه) و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. با شمارش علف‌­های­هرز به تفکیک جنس و گونه، شاخص‌­های جمعیتی آنها محاسبه شد. برای تمامی مزارع طول و عرض جغرافیایی و ارتفاع از سطح دریا توسط دستگاه GPS ثبت گردید. در اقلیم‌­های مختلف این استان 85 گونه‌ علف­هرز متعلق به 31 خانواده گیاهی در مزارع چغندرقند شناسایی شد. علف‌­های­هرز پهن برگ غالب مزارع چغندرقند طی مرحله نمونه­برداری ابتدای فصل ( نیمه دوم اردیبهشت) به ترتیب اهمیت عبارت بودند از سلمه‌تره(L Chenopodium album) و پیچک­صحرایی( Convolvulus arvensis L)، به ترتیب با شاخص غالبیت 22/189 و 09/124 و در نمونه­برداری انتهای فصل رشد( اواخر شهریور) علف­های­هرز پهن برگ غالب سلمه‌تره( C. album)، تاج خروس (Amaranthus viridisL )، پیچک­صحرایی( C. arvensis) و توق( (Xanthium strumarium L بودند که به ترتیب شاخص غالبیت 92/207، 194، 22/111 و 93/107 را داشتند. علاوه بر این، علف­هرز چسبک (Setaria viridis ( L) P. Beauv ) به­عنوان باریک برگ غالب مزرعه چغندرقند بود که به ترتیب در نمونه­برداری ابتدا و انتهای فصل رشد شاخص غالبیت 73/79 و 35/176 را دارا بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of the weeds population structure and diversity in sugar beet fields in Kermanshah Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdol reza Ahmadi 1
  • seyede fariba khamoushi 2
  • M. Vassi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Weeds Science, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Iran
2 M.S student of weed Science, Lorestan University, Khoramabd, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Plant Protection Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to identify and determine weed population in sugar beet fields, 92 fields from five counties of Kermanshah province in Iran were selected and evaluated at two growing stages (early May and late September) in 2014. The weed population indices were calculated by counting the number of weeds separated on othe basis of genus and species. For all fields, the latitude, longitude and altitude were recorded using GPS device. Eighty-five weed species belonging to 31 families were identified in different sugar beet fields. The dominant broad-leaf weeds identified at the beginning of the growing season (first sampling stage) were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album L.) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) with 189.22 and 124.09% dominance index, respectively, whereas at the second sampling (late September), the dominant broad-leaf weeds identified were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album L.), pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) with 207.92, 194, 111.22, and 107.93% dominance index, respectively. Green foxtail (Setaria viridis L.) was the dominant narrow-leaf weed in both samplings at the beginning and end of the growing season with 79.73 and 176.35% dominance index, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dominance index
  • Frequency
  • Field density
  • Growing stages

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