گزینش برای تحمل به خشکی در فامیل های نیمه خواهری (Half sib family) در چغندر قند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران

2 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از مؤثرترین روش‎های کاهش مقابله با خشکی و افزایش رادمان مصرف آب، اصلاح و تهیه ارقام مقاوم به خشکی است که از تحمل بالایی به خشکی برخوردار بوده و به ازاء یک واحد کاهش مصرف آب، کاهش عملکرد کمتری داشته باشند. بدین منظور اصلاح گرده‎افشان‎های دیپلوئید متحمل به خشکی به‎عنوان یکی از پایه‎های رقم هیبرید مدنظر قرار گرفت. از چهار توده گرده‎افشان دیپلوئید، تعداد 45 فامیل نیمه‎خواهری تهیه و در شرایط تنش خشکی ارزیابی و فامیل‎های برتر با بیشترین عملکردریشه انتخاب شدند. سپس فامیل‎های جدید تهیه و پس از ارزیابی نهایی، 23 فامیل برتر انتخاب و با یک سینگل کراس نرعقیم منو‍ژرم به‎عنوان والد مادری تلاقی داده شدند و 23 هیبرید تست کراس به‎دست آمد. این هیبریدها به همراه رقم گدوک و یک هیبرید متحمل به تنش خشکی (IR7) به‎عنوان شاهد (در مجموع 25 تیمار) در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در دو آزمایش با آبیاری نرمال و تنش خشکی در ایستگاه طرق مشهد به مدت دو سال زراعی (86 و 87) مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. در آزمایش بدون‎تنش، آبیاری در طول فصل رشد به‎طور معمول بر اساس 90 میلی‎متر تبخیر از طشتک کلاس A انجام شد، ولی در آزمایش تنش‎خشکی آبیاری بر اساس اندازه‎گیری رطوبت خاک در عمق‎های مختلف (پس از تخلیه رطوبتی خاک تا نقطه پژمردگی) صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که بین فامیل‎ها از نظر عملکرد شکر در دو آزمایش آبیاری نرمال و تنش‎خشکی اختلاف معنی‎دار وجود داشت. به‎طور متوسط عملکرد شکر از 15/20 تن در هکتار در روش آبیاری نرمال به 7/10 تن در هکتار در تنش‎خشکی کاهش یافت. بیشترین عملکردریشه در شرایط تنش‎خشکی به هیبرید تست کراس شماره 12 با شجره (436*231)*SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.35 به مقدار 55/78 تن در هکتار تعلق داشته است که با هیبریدهای شماره 7 ،6 ، 14، 2، 5، 10 و 3 بدون اختلاف معنی‎دار در گروه برتر و رقم شاهد IR7 با عملکردریشه کمتر در گروه بعدی قرار گرفتند. هم‎چنین، در تنش‎خشکی بیشترین شکر تولیدی به مقدار 7/93 تن در هکتار به هیبرید شماره 7 با شجره(436*231)*SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.7 تعلق داشت. به منظور انتخاب هیبریدهای متحمل به خشکی از شاخص‎های تحمل به تنش(STI)، حساسیت به تنش(SSI)  و تحمل(TOL)  بر مبنای عملکردشکر استفاده شد. براساس نتایج حاصله، هیبریدهای تست کراس شماره 7، 9، 12، 18 و 22 به‎عنوان هیبریدهای متحمل شناخته شدند ولی با توجه به بیشترین عملکردشکر در روش تنش از بین پنج هیبرید فوق، هیبریدهای شماره 7 {(436*231)*SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.7} و 12 {(436*231)* SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.35} به ترتیب با عملکرد شکر 7/93 و 7/15 تن در هکتار به‎عنوان هیبریدهای برتر متحمل انتخاب شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Selection of drought-tolerant half-sib families in sugar beet

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.R. Orazizadeh 1
  • A. Rajabi 2
  • M. Ahmadi 3
1 Instructor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran
2 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Sugar Beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the most effective ways to deal with drought stress and increase water use efficiency is the development of drought-tolerant varieties which display less reduction in yield per unit water reduction. Therefore, the breeding of diploid pollinators was considered as an essential measure for producing drought-tolerant hybrids. In this study, from 4 diploid pollinator populations, 45 half-sib families were developed and evaluated under drought stress condition and subsequently superior families with high root yield were selected. New families were produced and after final evaluation, 23 families with high performance were selected and crossed with a male sterile monogerm single cross as female parent and eventually 23 test-cross hybrids were produced. These hybrids together with Gadook cultivar and a drought-tolerant hybrid (IR7), as controls, were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications in two experiments including normal irrigation and drought-stress condition at Torogh Research Station in Mashhad, Iran for two years, 2007-08. Normal irrigation was performed after 90 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan but under stress condition, irrigation was performed based on soil moisture measurement at different soil depths (after soil moisture depletion reached to wilting point). Results showed significant difference among the families in terms of sugar yield in both experiments. Sugar yield was decreased from 15.20 t ha-1 in normal irrigation to 7.10 t ha-1 under drought stress condition. Under drought stress, the highest root yield (55.78 t ha-1) was obtained in test-cross hybrid 12 [(436*231)*SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.35)] which was placed in superior group with hybrids 7, 6, 14, 2, 5, 10 and 3. Furthermore, the highest sugar yield (7.93 t ha-1) was obtained in hybrid 7 [(436*231)*SBSI-DR I-HSF-14-P.7]. In order to select drought-tolerant hybrids, Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI) and Tolerance (TOL) indices were calculated based on sugar yield. According to the results, test-cross hybrids 7, 9, 12, 18 and 22 were identified as drought-tolerant hybrids but based on sugar yield results, hybrids 7 and 12 were selected as promising hybrids with 7.93 and 7.51 t ha-1 sugar yield, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought Stress
  • Half-sib families
  • sugar beet
  • Test cross
  • tolerance
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