اثر عوامل محیطی و پایه های مادری بر برخی صفات بذر چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

3 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

4 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

درصد بذر استاندارد و قوه نامیه مکانیکی (درصد مغزدار بودن) در چغندرقنداز صفات مهم در تولید بذر می باشند.در این تحقیق، اثر عوامل محیطی و پایه­های مادری بر عملکرد، درصد قوه نامیه مکانیکی، درصد جوانه­زنی و ضریب تبدیل ده سینگل­کراس چغندرقند مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال1393 در اردبیل، فیروزکوه و کرج انجام شد. سینگل­کراس­ها از تلاقی ده پایه مادری نرعقیم و یک پایه پدری ایجاد شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که اثر متقابل محیط و پایه­های مادری بر عملکرد بذرخام، بذر استاندارد، بذر قابل فروش، ضریب تبدیل،درصد قوه نامیه مکانیکیقبل از پوک­گیری و درصد وزنی بذر قابل فروش معنی‌دار بود. محیط و پایه­های مادری، درصد وزنی بذر استاندارد، درصد قوه نامیه مکانیکی بعد از پوکگیریو درصد جوانه­زنی را تحت تأثیر قرار دادند. لیکن نتایج نشان داد که درصد بذر مغز­دار جوانه­نزده تنها تحت تأثیر محیط می­باشد. درصد قوه نامیه مکانیکی قبل از پوک­گیری در کرج، اردبیل و فیروزکوه به ترتیب 90/41، 69/73 و 40/91 درصد بود. در نتیجه عملکرد بذر قابل فروش و ضریب تبدیلسینگل­کراس­ها در کرج و سپس اردبیل نسبت به فیروزکوه برتری معنی­داری داشتند.نتایج نشان داد که اثر محیط بر زمان اولین گل باز شدهو باز شدن 50% گل­ها،معنی‌دار بود. لیکن پایه­های مادری و پایه پدری در زمان شروع گل­دهی و باز شدن 50 درصد گل­هادر کرج، اردبیل و فیروزکوه، هم­زمان بودند. بیشترین درصد وزنی بذر قابل فروش به سینگل­کراس­های MS SB17 * OT 231،MS SB37 * OT 231 و MS 7112 * OT 231در کرج و در اردبیل به سینگل­کراسMS SB37 * OT 231به ترتیب حدود 64 ، 61 و 47 درصد تعلق داشت.بنابراین، بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه استنباط می شود که کوتاه بودن دوره رشد زایشی همراه با یکنواختی رشد بوته­ها در یک سینگل­کراس، می­تواند در نهایت به افزایش رسیدگی یکنواخت و ضریب تبدیل بذر منجر شود. بیشترین و کمترین درصد جوانه­زنی به سینگل­کراس­های MS SB16 * OT 231وMS 452 * OT 231 به ترتیب با 91/84و 79/33 درصد تعلق داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of environmental factors and maternal parent on some sugar beet seed characteristics

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.R. Mirzaie 1
  • J. Asghari 2
  • D. Taleghani 3
  • S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati 4
1 SBSI
2 Professor, Unversity of Guilan, Rashat, Iran
3 SBSI
4 SBSI
چکیده [English]

Standard seed percentage and mechanical viability are important characteristics in sugar beet seed production. In this study, effects of environmental factors and maternal parent on seed yield, mechanical viability percentage, germination percentage, and conversion coefficient of 10 sugar beet single crosses were evaluated. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications in Ardabil, Firuzkuh and Karaj in 2014. Single cross materials were produced from the cross of 10 male sterile lines with one o-type line. Combined analysis of variance results indicated that maternal parent × environment interaction had significant effect on raw seed yield, standard seed size yield, marketable seed yield, conversion coefficient, mechanical viability before seed processing, and percent weight of standard seed. Both environment and maternal parent influenced percent weight of standard seed, mechanical viability percentage after winnowing as well as germination percentage. However, filled clusters percentage was only affected by environment. Before seed processing, mechanical viability percentage was 90.41, 69.73, and 40.91% in Karaj, Ardabil, and Firuzkuh, respectively. As a consequence, marketable seed yield and conversion coefficient results in Karaj and Ardabil showed significant superiority to Firuzkuh. Results indicated that environment had significant effect (p<0.01) on the first flower opening as well as the 50% flowering. However, the maternal parents and the paternal parent flowered simultaneously in all regions. The highest marketable seed weight percentage belonged to MS FC 708 * OT 231 (64), MS KWS * OT 231 (61) and MS 7112* OT 231 (47) in Karaj, and MS KWS * OT 231 in Ardabil. Based on the results, it can be concluded that limited reproductive stage together with uniform plant growth in a single cross can ultimately lead to increased seed uniform maturity and conversion coefficient. The highest and lowest germination percentage belonged to MSFC607 * OT231 (91.84%) and MS FC 452 * OT 231 (79.33%), respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mechanical viability
  • germination percentage
  • sugar beet seed
  • seed conversion coefficient
  • seed yield
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