تخمین بهترین زمان کاشت چغندرقند با استفاده از پارامترهای اقلیمی در مناطق مختلف استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

2 اداره کل هواشناسی استان کرمانشاه

چکیده

تعیین مناسب ترین زمان کاشت چغندرقند، یکی از مهمترین عوامل مدیریتی کشت این محصول است. محدودیت اصلی درکشت زود هنگام چغندرقند، خطر بروز یخبندان بعد از سبزشدن و در مرحله گیاهچه‌ای می باشد. این تحقیق برای تعیین زمان بهینه تاریخ کشت و به حداقل رساندن خسارت یخ زدگی اجرا شد. بدین ترتیب مدلی بر اساس آمار بلند مدت هواشناسی(1372 تا 1386) برای تاریخ کشت در سه منطقه اسلام آباد غرب، کنگاور وکرمانشاه (شامل شهرستان‌های صحنه، بیستون و ماهیدشت) تعیین گردید. بعد از اطمینان از نرمال بودن داده­ های بلند مدت دمای هوا و خاک (آزمون شاپیرو- ویلک) درهر منطقه، ابتدا با استفاده از تابع توزیع نرمال احتمال وقوع دماهایی که به گیاهچه‌های چغندرقند خسارت وارد می‌کند(کمتر از دو درجه سانتی‌گراد زیر صفر) طی ماه‌های اسفند تا اردیبهشت تعیین شد. سپس با توجه به دمای پایه جوانه‌زنی چغندرقند و واحدهای گرمایی مورد نیاز از کاشت تا سبز شدن با در نظر گرفتن آمار بلند مدت دما در عمق پنج سانتی‌متری خاک در هر منطقه، زمان‌های محتمل کشت و زمان سبز شدن پیش‌بینی گردید. با تلفیق دو عامل احتمال کمتر از 20 درصد وقوع یخ‌زدگی در دو درجه سانتی‌گراد زیر صفر و زمان‌های فرضی کشت و پیش‌بینی زمان سبز شدن، یک مدل زمان کشت برای هر منطقه تهیه شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین واحدهای گرمایی مورد نیاز از کاشت تا سبز شدن چغندرقند برای همه مناطق 173 درجه روز رشد بود. براساس مدل تهیه شده مشخص گردید زودترین تاریخ کشت قابل توصیه که کمترین خطر خسارت یخ زدگی(کمتر از 20 درصد) برای گیاهچه چغندرقند را داشته باشد، درکرمانشاه، اسلام‌آباد غرب و کنگاور به ترتیب در محدوده 27 اسفند، دوم و بیستم فروردین ماه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of the most appropriate sugar beet planting date based on climatic parameters in different regions of Kermanshah province

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali jalilian 1
  • Rasol Nejafi 2
چکیده [English]

Determination of the most appropriate sugar beet planting date is one of the important factors influencing field management. The occurrence of frost damage after seedling emergence has been considered as a limiting factor for early sugar beet planting. This study was conducted to determine the proper sugar beet planting date in IslamabadGharb, Kangavar and Kermanshah (including Sahne, Bisotun and Mahidasht cities). A model was designed based on meteorological data collected from 1993 to 2008. After running a normality test for long-term soil and meteorological data (Shapiro-Wilk test) in each location, the probability of seedling damaging temperatures (less than -2 oC) during March to May was determined using normal distribution function. Then, according to the required base-temperature for germination and thermal units from planting to emergence as well as collected long-term temperature data at the depth of 5 cm in each region, the plausible planting and emergence time was predicted. Through combining the probability of less than 20% frost occurrence  at -2 oC and proposed planting dates and prediction of field emergence, a plating-time model was developed for each region. Results showed that the average thermal units required from planting to seedling emergence was 173 growing degree days for all regions. Based on the results, the earliest planting date with less than 20% frost damage to sugar beet seedling for Kermanshah, Islamabad Gharb, and Kangavar were found to be 17th March, 22ndMarch, and 9th April, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Frost damage
  • Planting date
  • Seedling emergence
  • sugar beet
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