تاثیر روش های آبیاری بارانی و نشتی برشدت آلودگی بیماری سفیدک پودری در چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

2 ااستادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

3 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

4 مربی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان

5 کارشناس ارشد موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

چکیده

بیماری سفیدک پودری یک بیماری قارچی است که هرساله در بیشتر مزارع چغندرقند کشورآلودگی ایجاد کرده و باعث افت عملکرد ریشه ودرصدقند دراین مزارع می گردد. هدف این تحقیق تعیین تاثیرروش های مختلف آبیاری برشدت آلودگی بیماری سفیدک پودری چغندرقند بود. به همین منظور هشت رقم تجارتی حساس ومقاوم چغندرقند به سفیدک پودری تحت دو روش آبیاری بارانی ونشتی طی دوسال (1391 و 1390) و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار، در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی ماهیدشت کرمانشاه مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نتایج تجزیه مرکب دوساله واریانس نشان داد که در روش آبیاری نشتی میزان آلودگی به بیماری حدود 49/1 درصد ودرروش آبیاری بارانی حدود 9/5 درصد بود. بنابراین تاثیر آبیاری بارانی درکنترل  بیماری سفیدک پودری درچغندرقند بسیارموثر وکارآمد می باشد. میزان آلودگی در ارقام مختلف نیز متفاوت بود. بالاترین میزان آلودگی با 36/6 درصد در رقم SBSI004  کم ترین میزان آلودگی با 10/62 درصد بذر رقم بریجیتا مشاهده شد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که روش آبیاری بر عملکرد ریشه تاثیر داشته گرچه از نظر آماری معنی دار نبود، به طوریکه عملکرد ریشه در آبیاری نشتی حدود 0/7 تن در هکتار بالاتر از روش آبیاری بارانی بود. بالاترین عملکرد ریشه حدود 13/65 تندر هکتار بود که به رقم بریجیتا تعلق داشت و این رقم کمترین درصد آلودگی را نشان داد. روش آبیاری برروی صفت درصد قند در سطح پنج درصد معنی دار بود . نتایج نشان داد که درصد قند در روش آبیاری نشتی با 15/04 درصد بالاتر از آبیاری بارانی با 13/59 درصد بود. بنابراین روش آبیاری نشتی باعث افزایش درصدقند به میزان 1/45 درصد شده است. همچنین در روش آبیاری نشتی تجمع نیتروژن مضره وسدیم درریشه کمتر از روش آبیاری بارانی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of sprinkler and furrow irrigation systems on powdery mildew disease severity in sugar beet

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Basati 1
  • M. Shekholeslami 2
  • A. Jalilian 3
  • M. R. Jahadakbar 4
  • F . Hamdi 5
1 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Assistant professor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Kermanshah, Iran.
3 Assistant professor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Kermanshah, Iran.
4 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Isfahan, Iran.
5 Master expert of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Iran.
چکیده [English]

Powdery mildew of sugar beet is a common disease in many sugar beet growing areas causing root yield and sugar content reduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation methods on powdery mildew severity in sugar beet. Eight susceptible and resistant commercial cultivars were evaluated under sprinkler and furrow irrigation systems in a randomized complete block design with four replications for two years at Mahidasht station, Kermanshah, Iran. The combined analysis results showed that the infection index in furrow and sprinkler irrigation systems was 49.1 and 5.9%, respectively. Sprinkler irrigation had significant effect on the control of powdery mildew. The highest and the lowest rates of infection were observed in SBSI004 (36.6%) and Brigita (10.62%) cultivars, respectively. Furrow irrigation yielded 0.7 t/ha higher root yield than sprinkle irrigation, although it was not statistically significant. The highest root yield (65.13 t/ha) was noted in cultivar Brigita. The effect of irrigation on sugar content was significant with 15.04% in furrow irrigation and 13.59% in sprinkler system, respectively Therefore furrow irrigation resulted in 1.45% increase in sugar content and also lower accumulation of sodium and amino nitrogen in roots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Erysiphe betae
  • Furrow irrigation
  • Powdery mildew
  • Sprinkler Irrigation
  • sugar beet
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