واکنش صفات کمی و کیفی ژنوتیپ های چغندرقند به تاریخ های مختلف کاشت و برداشت

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،واحد تبریز،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تبریز،ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،واحد تبریز،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تبریز،ایران

3 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند- سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندر قند ،سازمان تحقیقات ،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،کرج،ایران

5 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،واحد تبریز،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تبریز،ایران

چکیده

در مناطق نیمه‎خشک (مانند ایران)، آب عمده‎ترین عامل محدودکننده رشد و عملکرد چغندرقند محسوب میشود. از جمله روشهای کاهش مصرف آب در زراعت چغندرقند میتوان به اصلاح رقمهایی با قابلیتانعطاف طول دوره رشد بسته به شرایط محیطی اشاره کرد. این مطالعه طی دو سال زراعی 1394 و 1395 در ایستگاه تحقیقات چغندرقند مرحوم مطهری بهصورت اسپلیتفاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. کرتهای اصلی به تاریخکاشت (شامل دو سطح دهه سوم فروردین و دهه اول تیر) و ترکیب فاکتوریل سه تاریخبرداشت (بیستم مهر، دهم و سیام آبان) و شش رقم شامل هیبریدهای امیدبخش (7112*261)*5RR-87-HF.33 و 261*276.P.77.SP.19 و رقمهای تجارتی پارس، جلگه، پایا و IR7 بهعنوان کرتهای فرعی درنظر گرفته شدند. پتانسیل تولید محصول ریشه و شکرخام بهازای هر هفته تأخیر در کاشت معادل 8/3-5/3 درصد کمتر شد. معنیدار شدن اثرمتقابل تاریخکاشت × ژنوتیپ در سطح احتمال پنج درصد نشان داد واکنش ژنوتیپهای مختلف نسبت به کوتاه شدن دوره رشد متفاوت است. ژنوتیپهای برتر برای کشت دیرهنگام از طریق ترکیب دو مؤلفه کمترین واکنش به تأخیر در کاشت و در عین حال، بیشترین عملکرد در شرایط کشت دیرهنگام بهترتیب از لحاظ عملکرد ریشه رقمهای پایا، IR7 و پارس، عملکرد شکرخام رقمهای IR7 و پایا بودند. باوجود آنکه اثر مستقیم تاریخبرداشت بر عملکرد ریشه و شکرخامو عیار قند بهواسطه معنیدار شدن اثرمتقابل سال × تاریخ برداشت، معنیدار نشد اما در مجموع طی سال 1394 بهتأخیر انداختن برداشت از بیستم مهر به دهم آبان موجب افزایش 21و38 درصدی عملکرد ریشه و شکرخام و همچنین افزایش 72/1 واحدی عیار قند شد. بنابراین، تاریخ برداشت دهم آبان، مناسبترین زمان برداشت چغندرقند در منطقه کرج محسوب میشود. عدم تأثیر معنیدار اثرمتقابل تاریخکاشت × تاریخبرداشت بر صفات مختلف نشان داد نمیتوان با بهتعویق انداختن تاریخبرداشت، اثرات تأخیر در کاشت را جبران کرد. در مجموع، نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد بهازای هر روز تعجیل در کاشت (حدفاصل دهه سوم فروردین و دهه اول تیر)، عملکرد ریشه، عملکرد شکرخام بهترتیب معادل 400 و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار بهازای هر روز به‎‎تعویق انداختن برداشت (حدفاصل بیستم مهر تا دهم آبان)، صفات یادشده بهترتیب معادل 370 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش مییابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet genotypes to different sowing and harvest dates

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hedayat vahidi 1
  • Bahram Mirshekari 2
  • S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati 3
  • Abazar Rajabi 4
  • mehrdad yarnia 5
1 PhD student Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Associate Profeesor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj,Iran
4 Associate ProfeesorSugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
5 - Profeesor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In semi-arid regions e.g. Iran, water is the major limiting factor for the growth and yield of sugar beet. Development of cultivars with flexible growth period, dependent on the environmental condition, is one of the methods to reduce water usage for sugar beet cultivation. The present study was performed in Sugar Beet Research Station of Motahhari, Karaj, Iran as a split factorial based on a randomized complete blocks design with four replications in two years (2015-16). Main plots were devoted to sowing date (mid-April and late-June), and sub-plots to the factorial combinations of three harvest dates (12 October, 1 November, and 21 November) and six genotypes including promising hybrids (7112*261)*5RR-87-HF.33 and 261*276.P.77.SP.19 and commercial cultivars Pars, Jolgeh, Paya and IR7. Potential root yield (RY) and sugar yield (SY) was reduced by 3.5-3.8% per week owing to delay in sowing. The significance of sowing date × genotype interaction (P<0.05) highlights diverse response of various genotypes to the shortening of the growth period. Superior genotypes for delayed planting were identified based on the combination of two components of the least response to delayed sowing as well as achieving the highest yield under delayed sowing condition in terms of SY as Paya, IR7, and Pars. Although the direct effect of harvest date on RY, SY, and sugar content (SC) was not significant due to the significant interaction of year × harvest date, however in general, it increased RY, SY, and SC by 21, 38, and 1.72 %, respectively via delaying the harvest date from 12 October to 1 November 1 in 2015. Therefore, the harvest date of 1 November was the most suitable time for sugar beets harvest in Karaj region. Non-significant interaction between sowing and harvest date for various studied traits indicated that the impacts of delay in sowing cannot be offset by delay in harvest. Overall, results showed that by each single day advancement in sowing (between mid-April and late-June) RY and SY increased by 400 and 50 kg ha-1, respectively and for each day delay in harvest (between 12 October  and 1 November) RY and SY were increased by 370 and 100 kg ha-1, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sugar beet
  • sugar
  • Root yield
  • spring sowing
  • Summer sowing
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