اثر کاربرد تلفیقی کودسبز و شیمیایی بر میزان کربن و نیتروژن خاک، کنترل علف‎های هرز و عملکرد کمی و کیفی چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

چکیده

بهره‌برداری مداوم از خاک سبب کاهش مواد آلی و عناصر غذایی و استفاده بیش‌ازحد کودهای شیمیایی میگردد. در چغندرقند به دلیل نیاز بالا، استفاده از کودهای آلی اهمیت بیشتری دارد. کودهای سبز و تلفیق آنها با منابع شیمیایی گامی درجهت کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و حرکت به سوی کشاورزی پایدار است. در پژوهش حاضر ابتدا دو گونه نخودفرنگی و خلر به عنوان کودسبز کشت گردید سپس میزان تولید و ویژگی‌های آنها مانند مقدار نیتروژن و کربن به‌همراه اثر بر خصوصیات خاک درمقایسه با شاهد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. سپس اثر آنها به‌تنهایی و در تلفیق با مقادیر کاهش یافته کود نیتروژن (160 و 80 کیلوگرم نیتروژن از منبع اوره) درمقابل 240 کیلوگرم اوره در تیمار مرسوم شیمیایی و شاهد بدون کود، مجموعاً در هشت تیمار طی سالهای زراعی 1391 تا 1393 بر چغندرقند مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد کودهای سبز ازنظر زیست‌توده تولیدی، نیتروژن و کربن اختلاف معنیداری داشتند و نیتروژن، کربن و نسبت کربن به نیتروژن خاک را 50 روز پس از مصرف تغییر دادند. همچنین اثر مطلوبی بر کاهش تراکم و زیست‌توده علف هرز داشتند. بیشترین عملکرد ریشه (47 تن در هکتار) و زیست توده تر (56/8 تن در هکتار) در تیمار تلفیقی نخودفرنگی+ 160 کیلوگرم نیتروژن بدست آمد که درمقایسه با کود شیمیایی (41/2 تن در هکتار)، بالاتر بود. با کاهش مصرف نیتروژن در تیمارهای تلفیق کودسبز نخودفرنگی، بالاترین عیارقند (20/3 درصد) به دست آمد. بیشترین مقادیر درصد قند قابل استحصال نیز در تیمارهای تلفیقی نخودفرنگی و کاربرد جداگانه کودهای سبز (حدود 18%) حادث شد.د درحالی که کمترین میزان قند قابل استحصال مربوط به تیمار کود نیتروژن و تیمارهای تلفیق خلر + نیتروژن (حدود 16%) بود. درنهایت بیشترین عملکرد قندخالص (8 تن در هکتار) در تیمار تلفیقی کودسبز نخودفرنگی+ 160کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن بود که نسبت به شاهد 20 درصد افزایش داشت. در سایر تیمارهای تلفیق نیز علیرغم کاهش مصرف یک تا دو سوم نیتروژن مصرفی در مقایسه با تیمار شیمیایی مرسوم، عملکرد قندخالص کاهش محسوسی نیافت. کمترین ناخالصی شامل نیتروژن مضره، پتاسیم و سدیم و کمترین قند ملاس در تیمارهای کود سبز و یا تلفیق با مقادیر کمتر نیتروژن به دست آمد. این امر بیانگر این است که کاربرد کود سبزمصرف کود شیمیایی را کاهش و ضمن حفظ عملکرد، کیفیت و سلامت محصول را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizer on soil carbon and nitrogen, weed control, yield and quality of sugar beet

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali abasi surki 1
  • Seyfollah Fallah 2
1 Assistant professor of Department of Agronomy, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2 Professor of Department of Agronomy, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Continuous exploitation of soil results in organic matter and nutrient elements loss, and excessive chemical fertilizer application. For sugar beet, due to its higher nutritional demands, application of organic fertilizer is more important. Solitary or integrated application of green manures is a step towards reducing chemical fertilizer application. In this study, two species of green pea and Lathyrus sativus L. were planted as green manure and their dry matter accumulation and characteristics such as nitrogen and carbon content besides their effects on soil properties were evaluated compared with control. Then, effects of solitary or integrated applications of the abovementioned legumes with reduced levels of nitrogen fertilizer (80 and 160 kg ha-1 from urea source) versus 240 kg ha-1 urea as common rate and no fertilizer application as control, in total 8 treatments, were evaluated on sugar beet during 2012-14. Results showed that green manures had significant differences in terms of produced biomass, nitrogen and carbon. They changed nitrogen, carbon and carbon to nitrogen ratio of the soil in 50 days after application. Green manures showed optimum effects on weed density and biomass reduction. The highest root yield (47 t ha-1) and biomass (56.8 t ha-1) were achieved in green pea manure plus160 kg N ha-1 which was higher than chemical fertilizer (41.2 t ha-1). The highest sugar content (20.3%) was obtained under low N application in integrated green pea treatments. The highest rate of extraction coefficient of sugar was obtained in integrated green pea treatments and solitary application of green manure (about 18%), while the lowest extraction coefficient of sugar (16%) was obtained in nitrogen fertilizer treatment as well as integrated application of Lathyrus sativus + N. The highest white sugar yield (8 t ha-1) was obtained in green pea plus 160 Kg ha-1 N which showed 20% increase compared with control. In other integrated treatments, in spite of 1/3 to 2/3 reduction in N application compared with control, white sugar yield had no significant reduction. The lowest impurities rate including amino-nitrogen, K, and Na, and the lowest molasses sugar were obtained in green manure treatments or integrated application with low N levels. In conclusion, green manure application reduced chemical fertilizers usage while maintained yield, quality and product safety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbon
  • Green manure
  • nitrogen
  • Root yield
  • sugar beet
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