حسابداری آب در مزرعه چغندرقند تحت مدیریت دور و عمق آب آبیاری (مطالعه موردی: منطقه میاندواب)

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه ارومیه و عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجانغربی

2 استاد بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشیار پژوهشی، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از عمده دلایل خشکی دریاچه ارومیه در سال­های اخیر، تغییرات اقلیمی و توسعه کشت محصولات با نیاز آبی بالا از جمله چغندرقند بوده است. حسابداری آب با ارائه تصویر روشن از آب مصرفی در مزرعه، قادر به تشخیص فرصت­های صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب می­باشد. بدین منظور اجزاء حسابداری آب و شاخص­های عملکرد بر اساس نتایج تحقیقاتی مزرعه آزمایشی چغندرقند در منطقه میاندواب با استفاده از مدل Aqua Crop استخراج و سیستم حسابداری بر اساس مدیریت کم آبیاری و دور آبیاری در چارچوب حسابداری آب در مقیاس مزرعه­ای پیاده شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده سهم بارش از جریان ورودی خالص در آبیاری کامل با نوبت هفت روز در حدود هشت درصد بود و با افزایش دور آبیاری و اعمال مقادیر بیشتر کم آبیاری به 14 درصد افزایش یافت. بررسی نشانگر سهم تخلیه از جریان ناخالص ورودی نشان داد در دور آبیاری کوتاه مقدار آن به یک نزدیک بوده و تقریباً تمام آب ورودی به مزرعه به مصرف (تخلیه) رسید و فرصتی برای صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب مهیا نگردید. همچنین افزایش دور آبیاری موجب افزایش نشانگر سهم تخلیه فرایندی از کل آب مصرفی شد که افزایش آن جزء اهداف مدیریت آب در مزرعه محسوب می­گردد و سهم تخلیه فرایندی را بهبود ­بخشد. بررسی شاخص­های بهره­وری مصرف آب نشان داد کم آبیاری بهبود شاخص­ها را به دنبال داشت ولی کارایی مصرف آب را کاهش داد چرا که در کم آبیاری نسبت تبخیر که جزو تلفات غیرفرایندی است افزایش چشمگیری پیدا می­کند لذا موفقیت در اتخاذ استراتژی کم آبیاری برای صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب مستلزم به کارگیری شیوه­های دیگر مدیریتی در مزرعه نظیر استفاده از خاکپوش­ها و آبیاری قطره­ای می­باشد که به تواند جزء تبخیر را که جزو تلفات غیرفرایندی و غیرمفید است تحت کنترل درآورد.   
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water accounting in sugar beet field under duration and depth of irrigation management (case study: Miandoab region)

نویسندگان [English]

  • amir nourjou 1
  • majid Montaseri 2
  • javad Behmanesh 3
  • mehdi Akbari 4
1 Ph.D. student of Irrigation and Drainage; Water Engineering Department; Urmia University
2 Professor of Department of Water Engineering Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Department of Water Engineering Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the main causes of drought occurrence in Urmia Lake in recent years was climate change and the development of crops with high water requirements including sugar beet. Water accounting is able to identify water saving opportunities by providing a clear picture of the amount of water used on the field. To this end, the water accounting and performance indicators based on the research results of the sugar beet fields in Miandoab region were extracted using the Aqua Crop model, and the accounting system was implemented based on low irrigation and irrigation duration in the framework of water accounting under field scale. According to the results, the contribution of precipitation from the net inflow in full irrigation with a seven-day rotation was about 8%, and with increased irrigation duration and imply of more low irrigation it amounted to 14%. An assessment of the drainage ratio from the gross inflow current showed that it was close to one in low irrigation interval and nearly all input water into the field was consumed (drained) and no opportunity was made to save water. Also, increase in irrigation duration resulted in an increase in the rate of evacuation of the total water consumption, which is considered as one of the objectives of water management in the field and improves the rate of evacuation process. Investigating the water use productivity indices showed that irrigation improved indices, but reduced the water use efficiency since in low irrigation, the rate of evaporation, which is a non-process loss, was significantly increased. Therefore, success in adopting a low irrigation strategy to save water involves the use of other management practices on the field such as the mulch and drip irrigation application which can control the evaporation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aqua Crop model
  • sugar beet
  • Urmia Lake
  • Water accounting
  • Water use efficiency
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