بررسی میزان انطباق شرایط اقلیمی استان‌های خراسان شمالی، رضوی و جنوبی برای کشت پاییزه چغندرقند با استفاده از سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری تخصصی زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات چغندر قند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

4 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند- سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

5 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

هدف اصلی این مطالعه، تعیین نواحی مستعد کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در استان‌های خراسان شمالی، رضوی و جنوبی با توجه به برخی از متغیرهای مؤثر در آن می‌باشد. بدین منظور داده‌های هواشناسی از اداره کل هواشناسی استان‌ها برای ایستگاه‌های منطقه در دوره 1383-1394 جمع‌آوری شد، سپس با استفاده از نرم‌افزار  ArcGISاطلاعات توصیفی نقشه‌ها به آن اضافه شد. با توجه به اقلیم موردنیاز محصول چغندرقند بر اساس یک مدل تصمیم‌گیری سلسله مراتبی، وزن پارامتر و اهمیت هر یک از لایه‌ها به‌وسیله نرم‌افزار EXPERT CHOICE تعیین گردید. در بین معیارهای تصمیم‌گیری بهاره شدن (Vernalization) مهم‌ترین عامل تعیین شد. درنهایت با استفاده از عملیات همپوشانی وزنی در محیط سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی پهنه‌بندی عرصه‌های مستعد کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در این استان ها انجام گرفت. طبق نقشه نهایی پهنه‌بندی 9/71 درصد اراضی این استان‌ها جزء مناطق درجه یک قرار گرفت. پیرو پهنه‌بندی انجام‌شده به‌منظور بررسی امکان کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در شهرستان مشهد به‌عنوان تست مدل تحقیقی، آزمایشی در قالب اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394 انجام شد. این تحقیق حاکی از تأثیر معنی‌دار تاریخ کاشت و رقم بر درصد ساقه روی بود. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش و بررسی نقشه پهنه بندی نهایی مشخص گردید که این منطقه جزء مناطق درجه 2 می باشد؛ بنابراین به نظر می‌رسد امکان کشت پاییزه چغندرقند با استفاده از ارقام مقاوم و انتخاب تاریخ کاشت مناسب در مناطق مستعد استان های مورد بررسی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of climatic suitability for autumn sugar beet planting in North- and South Khorasan as well as Khorasan-e Razavi provinces using Geographic Information System (GIS)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Nabipour 1
  • D. Habibi 2
  • M. Ahmadi 3
  • D. Taleghani 4
  • A. Kashani 5
1 Ph.D in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch, Karaj, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch, Karaj, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Sugar beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (ARREO). Mashhad, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj,Iran
5 Professor of Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The main objective of this study was to determine the potential areas for autumn sugar beet planting in North- and South Khorasan as well as Khorasan-e Razavi provinces with respect to some of its effective variables. For this purpose, meteorological data was collected from the Meteorological Office of the provinces for the stations of the region during 2005-2015, and then, using ArcGIS software, descriptive information was added to the maps. According to the required climate of sugar beet crop based on a hierarchial decision making model, parameter weight  and importance of each layer were determined by EXPERT CHOICE software. Among the criteria for decision making, bolting was the most important factor. Finally, using gravity overlapping operation in GIS, zoning of suitable areas for autumn sugar beet planting was carried out. According to the final map of the zoning, 9.71% of these provinces were classified as first class. Following the zoning to evaluate the feasibility of autumn sugar beet planting in Mashhad as a test model, an experiment was conducted in a split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2015. This study showed a significant effect of planting date and cultivar on bolting percentage. Due to the results of this study and the final zoning map evaluation, it was shown that this area belongs to the second degree zones, so it seems possible to plant autumn sugar beet using resistant cultivars and selecting suitable lanting date in susceptible (first degree) regions of the studied provinces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climatic zoning
  • Planting date
  • sugar beet
  • GIS
  • Autumn planting
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