تأثیر تنش کم آبی بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی ژنوتیپ‌های چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکترای زراعت دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

2 دانشیار دانشکده علوم زراعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

3 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند- سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی جنبه­های بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیکی تنش کم آبی بر شش ژنوتیپ چغندرقند، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا" تصادفی با 8 تکرار در سال 1394 در مؤسسه­ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند انجام گرفت. آبیاری شامل دو سطح (تیمار شاهد و تنش کم­آبی) بود. از زمان کشت تا استقرار کامل گیاه، آبیاری برای هر دو تیمار مشابه بود و از این مرحله به بعد، در شرایط تنش بر اساس شروع علائم تنش انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم­آبی موجب کاهش معنی دار میزان آب نسبی برگ، وزن خشک ریشه و کارایی مصرف آب و افزایش معنی دار وزن ویژه­ برگ، نشت الکترولیت، میزان کلروفیل برگ (قرائت کلروفیل متر)، میزان پرولین، بتائین و فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز بوده است. اثر ژنوتیپ برای میزان کلروفیل، پرولین، وزن خشک ریشه و کارایی مصرف آب معنی­دار گردید. اثر متقابل آبیاری و ژنوتیپ فقط برای میزان پرولین و وزن خشک ریشه معنی دار شد. نشت الکترولیت به عنوان معیاری از پایداری غشای سلولی از 542/58 در شرایط آبیاری نرمال به 941/21 میکروزیمنس بر متر در تنش افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان کلروفیل برگ در ژنوتیپ شماره 1 (شاهد متحمل IR7) و کمترین میزان آن در ژنوتیپ شماره 5 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-977) مشاهده گردید. در شرایط تنش، بیشترین میزان پرولین در ژنوتیپ شماره 6 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-987) و کمترین میزان آن در ژنوتیپهای شماره 3 (PB13-S2-37.153.80.HSF–1007) و 1 (شاهد متحمل IR7) بود. به نظر می رسد برای غربال اولیه ژنوتیپ ها از نظر تحمل به تنش کم آبی می توان از وزن خشک ریشه، کارایی مصرف آب براساس وزن خشک ریشه و میزان کلروفیل برگ، بتائین و پراکسیداز استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of water deficit stress on physiological and biochemical traits of sugar beet genotypes (Beta vulgaris L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sh. Alaeimoghadam 1
  • M. Esmaeeli 2
  • A. Rajabi 3
  • H. Najafi 2
1 Former PhD student of Agronomy, Sari University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sarai, Iran.
2 Associate professor of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sari University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sarai, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj,Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the physiological and biochemical aspects of water deficit stress on six sugar beet genotypes, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with eight replications was carried out under greenhouse condition at Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Karaj, Iran, in 2015. Irrigation included two levels (normal irrigation and water deficit stress). Irrigation was equally applied to the both levels from sowing up to plant establishment after which irrigation in the water stress condition was done on the basis of stress symptoms appearance. Results showed that water deficit stress significantly decreased relative water content, root dry weight and water use efficiency and increased specific leaf weight, electrolyte leakage, leaf chlorophyll content, proline and betaine content. Chlorophyll and proline contents, root dry weight and root dry weight and water use efficiency were significantly influenced by genotype. The genotype by water treatment interaction was significant only for proline content and root dry weight. Electrolyte leakage, as a measure of cell membrane stability, was increased from 5242.58 µs.m-1 in normal condition to 941.21 µs.m-1 in water stress condition. The leaf chlorophyll content was increased in water stress condition. The highest and lowest chlorophyll content was observed in genotypes 1 (drought tolerant check) and 5 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-977), respectively. The highest proline content in water stress condition was observed in genotype 6 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-987), whereas the lowest value was observed in genotypes 3 (PB13-S2-37.153.80.HSF–1007) and 1. It seems that root dry weight, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll and betaine contents could be considered to initially screen the sugar beet genotypes for tolerance to water deficit stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sugar beet
  • Stress
  • Proline
  • betaine
  • peroxidase
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