کنترل بیولوژیکی پوسیدگی ریزوکتونیایی ریشه چغندرقند در ایران

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان. سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی. همدان. ایران

2 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

3 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

در این تحقیق، اثر آنتاگونیستی یازده جدایه متعلق به ده گونه قارچ تریکودرما شاملTrichoderma harzianum، T.atroviride(دو جدایه)،T. viride ، T. orientalis،T. citrinoviride، T.asperellum، T. spirale ،    T. crassum،T. psudokoningi  و T. ceramicum روی جدایه قارچ AG2-2 Rhizoctonia solani عامل پوسیدگی ریشه چغندرقند، در قالب طرح آماری کاملا تصادفی با یازده تیمار و چهار تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج این بررسی­ها نشان داد تمامی جدایه­های قارچ تریکودرما موجب کاهش یا توقف بیمارگر شدند و برترین اثرات آنتاگونیستی در آزمون کشت متقابل در جدایهZ1 T. harzianum مشاهده شد، بطوریکه این جدایه موجب 76/57 درصد بازدارندگی رشد میسیلیومی قارچ بیمارگر گردید. در آزمایش­های گلخانه­ای اثر چهار جدایه منتخب قارچ تریکودرما بر پوسیدگی ریشه چغندرقند (رقم شیرین) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این بررسی­ها نشان داد جدایه­های Z1 T. harzianum ، T. atroviride Z2 و T. orientalis Z4  به عنوان جدایه­های برتر به ترتیب موجب 71/1، 66/6 و 58/3 درصد کاهش شدت پوسیدگی ریشه گردیدند. در آزمایش­های مزرعه­ای (1392 تا 1393) در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان، اثر جدایه­های برتر منتخب تریکودرما در مقایسه با تیمار قارچ­کش(کاربوکسین-تیرام) و تیمار شاهد بر درصد بروز و شدت بیماری پوسیدگی ریشه چغندرقند با انجام آلوده سازی مصنوعی بررسی شد. نتایج این بررسی­ها نشان داد، جدایه­های منتخب قارچ تریکودرما از نظر کنترل بیماری با یکدیگر اختلاف معنی­دار داشته و جدایهT. harzianum Z1  در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد موجب 66/4 درصد کاهش درصد بروز آلودگی و 56 درصد کاهش شدت بیماری پوسیدگی ریشه شده است. لذا این جدایه به عنوان موثرترین آنتاگونیست درکاهش بیماری پوسیدگی رایزوکتونیایی ریشه چغندرقند شناسایی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological control of Rhizoctonia root rot of sugar beet in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • amir arjmandian 1
  • Soheila Mirzaei 2
  • D. Zafari 3
1 Stuff member of Hamedan Research Center
2 Staff menber of Bau ali sina University. Hamedan. Iran
3 Associate Professor of College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • root rot
  • biocontrol
  • Trichoderma
  • fungi
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