شبیه سازی اثر سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر رشد و عملکرد چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مربی موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

4 مربی موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر و نهال

چکیده

با استفاده از مدل‌ها عملکرد محصول و مصرف نهاده‌هایی مانند کود را می‌توان پیش‌بینی کرد و بحرانﻫای احتمالی در آینده کوتاه مدت را برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت نمود. بر اساس مدل، تأثیر کود نیتروژن بر توزیع ماده خشک بین اندام هوایی و ریشه چغندرقند برآورد شد. برای ساخت مدل از اطلاعات آزمایش اجرا شده در کرج در سال1380استفاده گردید. ورودیﻫای مدل تشعشع خورشیدی، نیتروژن مصرفی و برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیکی چغندرقند شامل راندمان مصرف نور، سطح ویژه برگ، ضریب توزیع مواد بین ریشه و اندام هوایی بود. در این مدل 11 متغیر، شامل شش پارامتر مستقل و پنج پارامتر با اثر متقابل تعریف شد که کمتر از مدل‌های مشابه بود. راندمان مصرف نور و سطح ویژه برگ برای منطقه کرج واسنجی شد. برای اعتبار سنجی مدل از نتایج آزمایشی طی سال‌های 82-80 و آزمایش دیگری در سال 1388 در کرج استفاده شد. مقادیر شبیه‌سازی شده ماده خشک کل و ماده خشک ریشه و پوشش گیاهی توسط مدل به مقادیر مشاهدهﺍی به خوبی برازش یافت و تأثیر نیتروژن بر توزیع مواد بین اندام‌های مختلف مشخص گردید. در این مدل عملکرد شکر نیز بر اساس نیتروژن در حد مناسبی برآورد شد. جذر میانگین مربعات خطا (RMSE) بین مقادیر شبیه‌سازی شده توسط مدل با مقادیر واقعی برای ماده خشک ریشه، کل ماده خشک گیاه و عملکرد شکر به ترتیب برابر 86/12، 57/17 و 62/20 درصد به دست آمد که نشان‌دهنده برازش خوب مدل به ماده خشک ریشه و کل ماده خشک گیاه و برازش مناسب به عملکرد شکر در سطوح نیتروژن مورد مطالعه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulation of sugar beet growth and yield under different nitrogen levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Khayamim 1
  • M. Bannayan Aval 2
  • H. Noshad 3
  • F. Ruzbeh 4
1 Assistant Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) , Iran
2 Associate Professor of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Agriculture college of Ferdosi University, Iran
3 Instructor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) Iran
4 Instructor of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Iran
چکیده [English]

Models can be used to predict crop yield and inputs levels such as fertilizer, in order to conduct programming for the management of probable future crisis. In this study, based on the model, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on dry matter partitioning in shoot and root of sugar beet was predicted. For model construction, data were collected from an experiment conducted in Karaj city in 2001. Inputs consisted of solar radiation, applied nitrogen, and some sugar beet morphophysiological parameters such as radiation use efficiency (RUE), specific leaf area (SLA), and root and shoot partitioning coefficients. Eleven variables including six independent parameters and five parameters with interaction effects were determined in this model (less variable number than similar models). Radiation use efficiency and SLA were calibrated for Karaj region. For model validation, results of the experiments conducted in Karaj, in 2001-03 and 2009, respectively were used. Simulated data for total and root dry matter and also crop cover were fitted to the observed data properly and the effect of nitrogen application on dry matter partitioning into different organs was determined. In this model, the sugar yield was estimated on the basis of optimum nitrogen level. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the simulated and observed data for total root and plant dry matter and sugar yield were 12.86, 17.57 and 20.62, respectively which showed optimum fitness of the model to total root and dry matter and also sugar yield for the studied nitrogen levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter partitioning
  • Growth simulation
  • Solar radiation
  • Sugar yield
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