بررسی امکان کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در منطقه فسا

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

2 کارشناس ارشد بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

3 کارشناس ارشد موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی امکان کشت پائیزه چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) در مناطق مستعد استان فارس، این تحقیق به صورت آزمایش کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار از سال 1384 به مدت سه سال زراعی در منطقه فسا اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سه تاریخ کاشت، پنج مهر، 25 مهر و 15 آبان در کرت اصلی، دو رقم چغندرقند مولتی‌ژرمBR1  و منوژرم رسول در کرت فرعی و سه زمان برداشت 10 اردیبهشت، پنج خرداد و 30 خرداد در کرت‌های فرعی فرعی بود که با هم مقایسه گردید. درطول دوره رویش یادداشت‌برداری‌هایی شامل، شمارش تعداد بوته، بوته‌های به ساقه رفته (بولتینگ)، بوته‌های گمشده و نمره رشد انجام شد. در زمان برداشت، پس از شمارش تعداد ریشه و توزین آن‌ها، نمونه خمیر برای تعیین درصد قند، میزان نا خالصی‌ها (پتاسیم، سدیم و نیتروژن آمینه) و قند ملاس تهیه شد. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای تاریخ کاشت، درصد بولتینگ را به طور معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد تحت تأثیر قرار می‎دهد. تاریخ کشت پنجم مهر دارای بیشترین درصد بولتینگ (409/18درصد) و تاریخ کاشت 25 مهر و 15 آبان به ترتیب با 420/5 درصد و 870/2 درصد کمترین درصد بولتینگ را داشتند. دو رقم BR1 و رسول از نظر درصد بولتینگ، عملکرد ریشه، درصد قند و عملکرد شکر سفید تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان ندادند. بیشترین درصد بولتینگ معادل 96/9 درصد مربوط به برداشت 30 خرداد، بود. بیشترین عملکرد ریشه و شکر سفید به ترتیب 486/58 و 36/5 تن در هکتار مربوط به تاریخ کاشت پنجم مهر و برداشت 30 خرداد بود. با توجه به افزایش عملکرد در تاریخ کاشت پنجم مهر و برداشت 30 خرداد استفاده از ارقام مقاوم به ساقه‌روی برای بهبود کمیت و کیفیت بیشتر محصول توصیه می‎شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of autumn sowing of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ) in Fasa area

نویسندگان [English]

  • G. R. Ashraf Mansoori 1
  • M. Sharifi 2
  • F. Hamdi 3
1 Instructor of sugar beet research department Fars, Iran
2 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research of Fars, Iran
3 Master Expert of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to determine the optimum sowing and harvesting dates of two autumn sugar beet cultivars (Bete vulgaris L.) and develop the planting area of this crop, the present research was conducted in Fasa, Iran during 2005-2008. The experiment was carried out in split-split plots based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Three sowing dates (September 27, October 17 and November 6) were assigned to main plots, two commercial sugar beet cultivars (BR1 and Rasoul) to sub- plots and three harvesting dates (April 30, May 26 and June 20) to sub-sub plots. During the growing period, parameters such as number of plants, lost plants, growth rate and bolting percentage were determined. The root yield was measured by harvesting the roots from the two middle rows of plots. Characteristics such as root yield, sugar content, impurities (K, Na and α-amino nitrogen) and white sugar percentage, purity of raw extract, alkalinity and molasses sugar were measured. Results showed that bolting percentages of sowing dates were significantly different at 1% level of probability. The highest bolting percentage (18.409%) was obtained from September 27 sowing date. Sowing dates (September 27 and November 6) had the lowest bolting percentage (5.420% and 2.870%, respectively). The bolting percentage, root yield, sugar content, impurities, and purity of raw extract, alkalinity, molasses sugar and white sugar yield of the cultivars were not significant. The maximum bolting percentage obtained from the harvesting date (June 20) was 9.964%. Maximum root yield and white sugar yield was obtained from the sowing date (September 27) and harvesting date (June 20) which were 58.486 and 5.360 tha-1, respectively. With respect to the increased yield due to planting date of September 27 and harvesting date of June 20, use of bolting tolerant cultivars to ensure higher quality  and yield I recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autumn sowing
  • Bolting
  • Commercial Cultivars
  • Sowing and harvesting date
  • sugar beet
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