ارزیابی شاخص‎های مورفوفیزیولوژیک ارقام چغندرقند پاییزه تحت شرایط تنش یخ‎زدگی در مرحله گیاهچه‎ای

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی

2 عضو هیأت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

3 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه فردوسی

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه صفات فیزیولوژیکی و مورفولوژیکی هفت رقم چغندرقند [Jolge، PP8 و SBSI1 (ارقام داخلی)، Giada، Monotunno، Palma، Suprema (ارقام خارجی)] تحت شرایط تنش یخ‎زدگی در محیط کنترل شده، تحقیقی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر مبنای طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد و گیاهان در مرحله گیاهچه‎ای در معرض دماهای یخ‎زدگی (صفر، 2، 4، 6، 8، 10، 12، 14، 16 و 18 درجه سانتی‎گراد زیر صفر) قرار گرفتند. سپس شاخص‎های درصد نشت الکترولیت‎ها، فلورسانس اولیه برگ خو گرفته به روشنایی (Fs)، فلورسانس حداکثر برگ خو گرفته به روشنایی (Fms)، فلورسانس متغیر (ΔF) و کارآیی فتوشیمیایی فتوسیستم II (ΔF/Fms)، میزان فتوسنتز خالص، تعداد و سطح برگ، طول و قطر ریشه‎چه و درصد بقاء مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان دادند رقمMonotunno  به ترتیب با میانگین 88 درصد بقا و 26 درصد نشت الکترولیت نسبت به سایر ارقام برتری دارد. حداقل و حداکثر دمای 50 درصد کشندگی بر اساس درصد بقا (LT50su) به ترتیب به میزان 9/16- و 2/15- درجه سانتی‎گراد و نیز بیشترین و کمترین مقدار کارآیی فتوشیمیایی فتوسیستم II،  به ترتیب با میانگین 7/0 و 59/0 در ارقام Monotunno و SBSI1 مشاهده گردید. نتایج هم‎چنین نشان دادند که بین درصد نشت الکترولیت‎ها و درصد بقا (***65/0- =r) و نیز صفات مرتبط با بازیافت گیاه همبستگی منفی و معنی‎داری (001/0≥P) وجود دارد. در حالی‎که همبستگی درصد بقا با تعداد برگ ( ***88/0=r) و طول ریشه (***87/0=r) مثبت و معنی‎دار بود. وجود همبستگی مثبت و معنی‎دار (***97/0 =r) بین درصد بقاء با نسبت ΔF/Fms و نیز همبستگی منفی و معنی‎دار نسبت ΔF/Fms با LT50su ( ***85/0- =r) و دمای 50 درصد کشندگی براساس نشت الکترولیت‎ها (LT50el) (***84/0- =r) نشان داد ارقامی که درصد نشت الکترولیت کمتر و بقاء بالاتری پس از دوره بازیافت دارند دارای نسبت ΔF/Fms بیشتری هستند. نتایج هم‎چنین نشان دادند که در ارقام متحمل به یخ‎زدگی، با کاهش درصد نشت الکترولیت‎ها، LT50su و LT50el  به‎طور معنی‎داری کاهش یافته و بین این دو شاخص نیز همبستگی مثبت و معنی‎داری (*75/0=r) وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Morpho-physiological indices in autumn sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars under freezing stress at seedling stage

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Nezami 1
  • H. R. Khazaei 1
  • M. Dashti 2
  • H. R. Mehrabadi 3
  • E. Eyshi Rezaee 3
  • M. Ahmadi 4
1 Professor of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Phd student of Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran and Member of Scientific Board of Khorassan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (KANRRC), Iran
3 Phd student of Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of , Iran
4 Assistant Professor of KANRRC, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the physiological and morphological traits of seven autumn sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars (Jolge, Palma, Giada, Monotunno, SBSI1, Suprema and PP8), under  freezing stress, a study was carried out as a factorial experiment (7×10) based on randomized complete block design with three replications in college of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The plants at seedling stage were exposed to ten freezing temperatures (0, -2, -4, -6, -8,-10, -12, -14, -16 and -18°C). Then, electrolyte leakage percentage, yield of quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), net photosynthesis, leaf number, leaf area, root length , root diameter and survival percentage indices were measured. Results showed that survival and electrolyte leakage percentage in Monotunno cultivar was 88 and 26 %, respectively, which showed superiority over other cultivars. The Minimum and maximum value of LT50su (-16.9 and -15.2 °C) and also Fv/Fm (0.7 and 0.59) were observed in Monotunno and SBSI1 cultivars, respectively. Results indicated a strong and negative correlation between Electrolyte leakage (EL) and survival percentage (r = -0.65***) and also among EL with other traits, whereas survival percentage had a strong and positive correlation with leaf number (r = 0.88***) and root length (r=0.87***). A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.97***) between survival percentage and Fv/Fm ratio and also a negatively significant correlation between Fv/Fm and LT50su (r = -0.85***) and LT50el (r = -0.84***) showed the cultivars with high survival percentage and also low electrolyte leakage have high Fv/Fm compared with sensitive cultivars. In cold tolerant cultivars with reduction of EL% the LT50el and LT50su indices decreased significantly, but correlation between LT50el and LT50su was significantly positive (r= 0.75*).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autmn sugar beet
  • Freezing stress
  • Morpho -physiological indices
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