تعیین تبخیر-تعرق و ضریب گیاهی (kc) چغندرقند با استفاده ازلایسیمتر و مقایسه آن با روش‎های تجربی در شهرکرد

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش آبیاری و فیزیک خاک مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

2 مربی بخش آبیاری و فیزیک خاک مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف تعیین تبخیر-تعرق گیاه چغندرقند و برآورد ضریب گیاهی (kc) آن برای دوره رشد با استفاده از لایسیمتر زه‎کش‎دار به روش بیلان آبی و روش‎های تجربی به مدت سه سال در شهرکرد اجراء شد. پس از کاشت بذر چغندرقند در داخل و خارج لایسیمتر، با اندازه‌گیری عوامل معادله‌ی بیلان آبی، تبخیر-تعرق گیاه در دوره‌ هفتگی و ماهانه محاسبه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که مجموع تبخیر-تعرق گیاه چغندرقند در فصل رشد برابر6/1016 میلی‎متر شد که میزان آب زه‎کش برابر با 9/73 میلی‎متر و تغییرات رطوبتی خاک برابر با 1/66 میلی‎متر بود. مقدار تبخیر از تشت کلاس A در فصل رویش چغندرقند برابر 5/1364 میلی‎متر شد. تبخیر-تعرق گیاه مرجع از طریق لایسیمتر زه‎کش‎دار اندازه‎گیری و با استفاده از روش‎های تجربی برآورد گردید، نتایج نشان داد که میزان تبخیر-تعرق گیاه مرجع از لایسیمتر در دوره رشد گیاه چغندرقند برابر با 03/1123میلی‎متر بود و از بین روش‎های تجربی، روش بلینی–کریدل فائو 24 و پن من مانتیث فائو 56 از دقت بیشتری در برآورد برخوردار بودند. ضریب گیاهی چغندرقند یا (kc) در مراحل رشد ابتدایی، توسعه گیاه، میانی و نهایی به ترتیب برابر با 72/0، 81/0، 04/1 و 70/0 شد و متوسط آن در کل دوره رشد گیاه چغندرقند برابر با89/0 بود. متوسط ضریب تشت تبخیر یاkpدر طول دوره رویش گیاه چغندرقند برابر با 83/0 شد و متوسط ضریب (Kc.p) در فصل رشد گیاه چغندرقند برابر با 73/0 به دست آمد. به عبارتی نیاز آبی چغندرقند برابر با  73/0 تبخیر از تشت تبخیر است و با داشتن میزان تبخیر از تشت با دقت قابل قبولی می‎توان نیاز آبی گیاه را تخمین زد. از طرفی کارایی مصرف آب برای محصول ریشه چغندرقند برابر با 14/5 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب و برای شکر سفید برابر با 753/0 کیلوگرم قند بر مترمکعب آب مصرفی برآورد گردید. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) of sugar beet using lysimeter and comparing it with experimental methods in Shahrekord

نویسندگان [English]

  • N.A. Ebrahimipak 1
  • S. Ghalebi 2
1 Associate Professor of Soil Physics ,Soil and Water Research Institute, Iran
2 Irrigation Research ,Soil and Water Research Institute, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed at determining the evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) of sugar beet during the plant growth using drainage lysimeter by using water balance and experimental methods for three years in Shahrekord. After sugar beet planting and out of lysimeter, evapotranspiration was measured weekly and monthly by measuring the factors of the water- balance equation. Results showed that the total evapotranspiration of sugar beet was 1016.6 mm during the growing season and the rate of water drainage and the soil moisture content were 73.9 and 66.1 mm, respectively. The amount of evaporation from class A pan was 1364.5 mm. Evapotranspiration of the reference plant was measured by using drainage lysimeter and estimated by using the experimental methods. Rusults showed that the evapotranspiration rate of the reference plant was 1123.03 mm and among the experimental methods, the Blaney- Criddle FAO24 and Penman-Monteith FAO 56 method had more accuracy. Crop coefficient at early stage, development stage, middle stage, and final stage was 0.72, 0.81, 1.04, and 0.7 with an average of 0.89 for the whole growing period of sugar beet. The average pan evaporation coefficient (Kp) was 0.83, and the average water requirement coefficient (Kc.p) was 0.73 for the growing season of sugar beet. In other words, sugar beet water requirement was 0.73 of the evaporation from the evaporation pan, and by having the amount of evaporation from the pan, one can estimate the under requirement of the crop with an acceptable accuracy. Water use efficiency for root and white sugar was 5.14 and 0.753 kg m-3, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evaporation from class A pan
  • pan coefficient
  • Reference crop
  • Water requirement coefficient
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