تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و برداشت بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی پنج رقم در کشت پاییزه چغندرقند در منطقه جیرفت

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد جیرفت

3 مربی پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند- کرج

4 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند- کرج

5 مربی پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات جغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان- کرمان

6 کارشناس ارشد سازمان جهادکشاورزی کرمان

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت آب به‌عنوان مهمترین عامل محدودکننده کشاورزی کشور، ضرورت دارد به موضوع افزایش کارآیی مصرف آب محصولات کشاورزی توجه ویژه‌ای مبذول شود. عمده مناطق کشت چغندرقند بهاره با محدودیت شدید آب مواجه هستند و افزایش سطح زیرکشت این گیاه در بیشتر این مناطق با اصل حفظ منابع آب و خاک مغایرت دارد. استفاده از پهنه‌‌های جدید زراعت چغندرقند پاییزه، این امکان را بهوجود می‌‌آورد که سطح زیرکشت این محصول در مناطق گرم و نیمهگرم افزایش یابد. به منظور توسعة کشت چغندرقند پاییزه در استان کرمان، این تحقیق در شهرستان جیرفت بهصورت بلوکهای نواری دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 87-1386 انجام شد. در این تحقیق سه تاریخکاشت پانزدهم شهریور، مهر و آبان در کرت‪های اصلی و پنج رقم رسول، مونوتونا، 9597 (شاهد حساس)، SBSI002 و SBSI003 در کرت فرعی و سه تاریخ برداشت پانزدهم فروردین، اردیبهشت و خرداد در کرت فرعیفرعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج این مطالعه حاکی از تأثیر معنیدار تاریخ کاشت و برداشت بر عملکرد شکر سفید بود. در این میان، تغییرات تاریخ کاشت مؤثرتر از تاریخ برداشت بود، به نحوی که کاهش طول دوره رشد به مدت دو ماه (ناشی از تأخیر در تاریخ کاشت) موجب کاهش عملکرد شکر سفید به میزان 5/72 درصد و افزایش دوره رشد به همین میزان (در نتیجه به تعویق انداختن تاریخ برداشت) تنها موجب افزایش عملکرد شکر سفید به مقدار 1/55 درصد شد. بیشترین عملکرد شکرسفید (71/13 تن در هکتار) از کاشت زودهنگام (پانزدهم شهریور) و برداشت در پانزدهم اردیبهشت (دوره رشد 240 روزه) رقم SBSI002 حاصل شد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق و شرایط آگروکلیمایی منطقه جیرفت (از مناطق گرم استان کرمان)، به نظر میرسد با انجام مطالعات تکمیلی، این منطقه به مناطق کشت پاییزه چغندرقند افزوده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of sowing and harvesting date effects on yield and quality of five sugar beet cultivars in Jiroft region (autumn planting)

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.S. Hemayati 1
  • M.H. Shirzadi 2
  • M. Aghaeezadeh 3
  • D. Taleghani 4
  • M.A. Javaheri 5
  • A. Aliasghari 6
2 Assistant professor of Islamic azad University of Jiroft Branch, Iran
3 Instructor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Karaj, Iran.
4 Associate professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Karaj, Iran
5 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre- Kerman, Iran.
6 Expert of Jihad-e-Agriculture- Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

As water is the most restrictive factor in national agricultural production, it is necessary to take decreased water consumption and increased water us efficiency in crop production into consideration. Nowadays, spring sugar beet production areas are concentrated in the region with water limitation and hence, the increase in spring production area contradicts the principle of water and soil conservation. Using new regions for autumn sugar beet sowing allows the increase in warm and semi-warm beet production areas. To develop sugar beet production in Province of Kerman and to find new climates, the study was conducted in Jiroft area in strip split split plots based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2007-2008. Three sowing dates (September 6, October 7 and November 6), five cultivars (Rasoul, Monatuna, 9597, SBSI002 and SBSI003) and three harvesting dates (April 4, May 5 and June 5) were evaluated. Results showed significant effects of sowing and harvesting dates on white sugar yield. The effects of sowing date variations were greater than those of harvesting date so that growth period shortened by two months (due to delayed sowing date) decreased white sugar yield by 72.5% whereas and growth period prolonged by the same amount (due to delayed harvesting date) increased the white sugar yield by 55.1%. The highest white sugar yield (13.71 ton.ha-1) was obtained by early sowing (September 6) of SBSI002 and harvesting in May 5(with 240 days growth period). Considering favorable agro-climatic conditions in Jiroft region belonging to warm zone of Province of Kerman, it seems that the region has the potential for fall cultivation of sugar beet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autumn cultivation
  • cultivar
  • Harvesting date
  • sowing date
  • sugar beet

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