بررسی روندرشد چغندرقند در همدان

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان

2 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور بررسی روند رشد گیاه چغندرقند در شرایط اقلیمی همدان و شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر کمیت و کیفیت محصول و هم‌چنین شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک اجراء گردید. دو آزمایش تاریخ کاشت در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار و 11 مرحله برداشت انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری از کرت‌ها به‌روش تخریبی و تجزیه رشد به‌روش رگرسیونی و براساس تغییرات شاخص سطح‌برگ، وزن خشک برگ و ماده خشک کل که مبنای تجزیه رشد هستند، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد حداکثر سرعت رشد گیاه زراعی (CGR) در تاریخ کاشت اول 90 روز پس‌از کاشت و به‌ترتیب معادل 2/20 و 3/23 گرم در مترمربع در روز در سال 1381 و 1382 اندازه‪گیری شد.  بیشترین سرعت رشد محصول در تاریخ کاشت دوم در سال 1381 و 1382  به ترتیب پس از 110 و96 روز از زمان کاشت به 5/29 و0/25 گرم در مترمربع در روز رسید. بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (LAI) تاریخ کاشت اول در حدود سه ماه پس‌از کاشت در سال 1381 به 5/2 و در سال 1382 معادل 6/2 شد که از لحاظ زمانی منطبق بر حداکثر میزان سرعت رشد محصول بود ولی در اواخر دوره رشد میزان سطح برگ به آرامی کاهش یافت. سرعت رشد نسبی (RGR) در اوایل دوره رشد در بیشترین مقدار خود بود و در طول دوره رشد چغندرقند به‌صورت رابطه خطی سیر نزولی داشت. تغییرات سرعت جذب خالص (NAR) در ابتدا به‌صورت بطئی افزایش و سپس با بزرگ شدن برگ‌ها و سایه‌اندازی آن‌ها روند نزولی پیدا کرد. بیشترین سرعت رشد ریشه چغندرقند (CGR-r) در تاریخ کاشت اول در سال 1381 و 1382 به ترتیب 94 و 92 روز پس‌از کاشت به 1/10 و 0/20 گـرم در مترمربـع در روز اتفاق افتاد و پس از آن روند نزولی داشت. در تاریخ کاشت دوم بالاترین میزان CGR-r نیز 0/14 و 3/17 گرم در مترمربع در روز بود که به ترتیب 108 و 95 روز پس‌از کاشت در سال 1381 و 1382 به‌دست آمد. به‌طور کلی عملکرد بالقوه ریشه در شرایط اقلیمی همدان در کشت زود نسبت به کشت تأخیری طی دو سال اجرای آزمایش برتری قابل توجهی داشت و شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی مربوط به روند رشد چغندرقند طی فصل رشد به خوبی با پتانسیل عملکرد محصول همخوانی داشت. لذا با توجه به تغییرات اقلیمی و پدیده گرم شدن کره‌زمین، کشت چغندرقند در اولین فرصت ممکن در منطقه از لحاظ شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی و هم‌چنین عملکرد چغندرقند قابل توجیه و توصیه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of sugar beet growth pattern in Hamedan

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.R. Mirzaei 1
  • M. Abdollahian-Noghabi 2
1 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Hamedan
2 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The current study was carried out to examine sugar beet growth pattern in climatic conditions of Hamedan, Iran and to recognize the factors affecting its quantity and quality as well as the physiological indices. Two sowing date experiments were conducted on the basis of a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications and 11 harvests. The plots were destructively sampled and the growth was analyzed by regression method on the basis of the variations of leaf area index, leaf dry weight and total dry weight which are the basis of growth analysis. Results revealed that the maximum crop growth rate of the earlier sowing date reached to 20.2 and 23.3 g.m-2.d-1 90 days after planting in 2002 and 2003, respectively. In the second sowing date, maximum crop growth rate reached to 29.5 and 25.0 g.m-2.d-1 110 and 96 days after planting in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Maximum leaf area index of the earlier sowing date was obtained about three months after planting approximately concurrent with the realization of maximum crop growth rate and reached to 2.5 in 2002 and to 2.6 in 2003, but it started to slowly decrease at later growth period. Relative growth rate was the highest at the early growth period and linearly decreased during growth period. Net assimilation rate firstly increased slowly, but as the leaves grew and shaded each other, it started to decrease. The highest root growth rate in the earlier sowing date reached to 10.1 and 20.0 g.m-2.d-1 94 and 92 days after planting in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The highest root growth rate in the second sowing date reached to 14.0 and 17.3 g.m-2.d-1 108 and 95 days after planting in 2002 and 2003, respectively. In total, root potential yield was considerably higher in the earlier than in the delayed sowing date under climatic conditions of Hamedan in both years. The sugar beet growth pattern-related physiological indices were greatly consistent with crop yield potential during growing season. Therefore, given the climate changes and global warming, sugar beet sowing in the earliest possible date in Hamedan is recommended in terms of physiological indices and yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • GDD
  • Growth index
  • Growth pattern
  • leaf area index
  • Root yield
  • sowing date
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