ردیابی ویروس زردی نکروتیک رگبرگ چغندر قند در برخی از علفهای هرز رایج در مزارع چغندر قند استان فارس

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

2 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

چکیده

بیماری ریزومانیا (Rhizomania) در حال حاضر یکی از مهم­­ترین بیماری­های چغندرقند در دنیا است. در تحقیق حاضر آلودگی تعدادی از علف­های هرز مهم مزارع چغندرقند در شرایط آلودگی طبیعی به ویروس عامل بیماری (Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, BNYVV) در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس بررسی شد. بدین منظور ریشه علف­های هرز موجود در مزارع چغندرقند آلوده به بیماری ریزومانیا جمع آوری و برای ردیابی BNYVV در آن ها از آزمون الایزا استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد در بین علف­های هرز مورد بررسی، بیشترین آلودگی به ویروس عامل بیماری مربوط به چغندر وحشی Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima بود و  BNYVV در سایر علف­های ­هرز مورد بررسی شامل تاج خروس  (Amaranthus retroflexus) ، خرفه (Portulaca oleracea) ، سلمک (Chenopodium album)، تاجریزی (Solanum nigrum)، پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis)، کنف وحشی (Hibiscus trionum) و آفتاب پرست (Heliotropium europaeum)  ردیابی نشد. گیاهچه­­های B.maritima در خاک آلوده به ریزومانیا در گلخانه کشت شدند و حدود دو ماه پس از کاشت، علائم برگی بیماری شامل موزائیک سیستمیک، زردی رگبرگ، تشکیل برگ­های کوچک و ریز به صورت مجتمع (رزت) و توقف رشد شدید را نشان دادند. انتقال مکانیکی BNYVV در شرایط گلخانه نیز علائم برگی بیماری در گیاهچه­های B. maritima را نشان داد. در انتقال مکانیکی BNYVV از عصاره برگ آلوده B. maritima به گیاهچه­های سه رقم چغندرقند حساس به بیماری ریزومانیا (IC،  PP8و7233 )، علائم لکه­های موضعی زرد رنگ و سپس نکروز تشکیل گردید. در اندازه­گیری مقدار ویروس در ریشه B. maritima در مقایسه  با ریشه سه رقم چغندرقند یاد شده، مشخص شد غلظت ویروس در ریشه  چغندر وحشی به طور معنی­دار (در سطح احتمال 05/0) بیشتر از سایر ارقام است. نتیجه این بررسی اولین گزارش معرفی B. maritima به عنوان میزبان سیستمیک و آزمایشی برای ردیابی BNYVV در ایران است. این جمعیت (B.maritima accession number 8901)بر­خلاف سایر علف­های هرز در مناطق آلوده به ریزومانیا دارای توان افزایش زادمایه بیماری در خاک می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV) in some common weeds of sugar beet fields in Fars province

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Darabi 1
  • M. Jamali 1
  • M. Bazrafshan 1
  • S.B. Mahmoudi 2
1 Instructor of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center Fars, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Iran.
چکیده [English]

Rhizomania is one of the most important sugar beet diseases in Iran and some other parts of the world. In this study, the infection rate of the most important weeds of sugar beet fields under natural condition  to the causal agent of the BNYVV (Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) disease  was investigated at Fars Agricultural Research Center , Iran. Roots were collected from the infected weeds and BNYVV detection was carried out using ELISA test. Among the studied weeds, the highest rate of infection was detected in wild beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and for the rest of weeds including Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus trionum, and Heliotropium europaeum no infection was detected. B. maritima seedlings were planted in infected soil in the greenhouse, and after two months, systemic leaf symptoms including mosaic, vein yellowing, short bunchy habit of growth (Rosette), and severe stunting were observed. Mechanical inoculation of BNYVV to B. maritima plants resulted in the emergence of disease symptoms. Upon the inoculation of infected B. maritima leaves on  the three susceptible sugar beet cultivars (IC, PP8, and 7233 cultivars), yellow local and necrotic lesions were observed. The virus concentration in B. maritima was higher than the three aforementioned cultivars. This is for the first time to detect BNYVV in B. maritima and report it as a systemic host for BNYVV in Iran. Compared with other weeds grown in areas infected to rhizomania, this population of B. maritima (accession number 8901) had higher inoculums increment ability in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Beta maritima
  • ELISA
  • Mechanical inoculation
  • Rhizomania
  • weed
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