تعیین نیاز آبی و تأثیر تغییرات آن بر برخی صفات کمی و کیفی محصول چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار مهندسی آب، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان- ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان- ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان- ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان- همدان، ایران.

چکیده

به‪منظور تعیین نیاز آبی گیاه چغندرقند و تأثیر تغییرات آب مصرفی بر برخی مؤلفه‪های تولید، آزمایشی به‪مدت چهار سال (1373 الی 1376) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اکباتان همدان اجرا گردید. بدین منظور، نیاز آبی بهینه، عملکرد ریشه و قند، کارایی مصرف آب بر پایه عملکردریشه، درصدقند و بازده مصرف آب براساس عملکردقند در شرایط عدم محدودیت آب و مواد غذایی به روش بیلان آبی طی چهار دوره رشد 130، 134، 152 و 162 روزه اندازه‪گیری و مقایسه شدند. هم‪چنین به‪طور هم‪زمان نیاز آبی گیاه مرجع (چمن) با استفاده از لایسیمتر اندازه‪گیری گردید تا روند تغییرات ضریب گیاهی چغندرقند بررسی گردد. نتایج بررسی‪ها، حجم آب مصرفی چغندرقند را طی چهار سال به ترتیب 8427، 7328، 10256 و 9026 مترمکعب در هکتار با میانگین 8759 مترمکعب در هکتار نشان داد. میانگین چهار ساله حداکثر ضریب گیاهی در مرحله میان فصل 04/1 و حداقل آن در مرحله آغازین برابر 42/0 به‪دست آمد. بیشترین عملکردریشه، قند و درصد قند با طول دوره رشد 162 روزه، به ترتیب 8/116، 36/20 تن در هکتار و 43/17 درصد به‪دست آمد. کمترین مقدار عملکردهای ریشه، قند و درصد قند در دوره رشد 130 روزه به ترتیب برابر 21/52، 5/8 تن در هکتار و 26/16 درصد اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در دوره رشد 130 روزه ضمن کاهش عملکردریشه، کارآیی مصرف آب برای عملکردریشه و عملکردقند نیز به‪ترتیب به 1/7 و 2/1 کیلو گرم به ازای هر مترمکعب آب مصرفی کاهش یافت. در دوره رشد طولانی‪تر مقدار کارآیی مصرف آب برای عملکرد‪ریشه و عملکردقند به ترتیب 4/11 و دو کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب آب مصرفی بدست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of water requirement and the effect of the changes on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of products of sugar beet

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Zare Abyaneh 1
  • E. Farrokhi 2
  • M. Bayat Varkeshi 3
  • M. Ahmadi 4
1 Associate Professor of Water Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Msc. student for Irrigation and Drainage of College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
3 Ph.D. student for Irrigation and Drainage of College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
4 Master of Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To determine sugar beet water requirement and the effect of changing the quantity of applied water on some production components, a study was carried out in Ekbatan Agricultural Research Station of Hamedān, Iran in four years (1994-1997) during which optimum water requirement, root and sugar yield, water use efficiency on the basis of root yield, sugar percentage and water use efficiency on the basis of sugar yield under no water and nutrients limitation conditions were measured and compared by water balance method for four growth periods of 130, 134, 152 and 162 days. At the same time, the water requirement of reference crop - poa - was measured by lysimeter in order to study the pattern of the variations of sugar beet crop coefficient. It was found that the amount of applied water for sugar beet was 8427, 7328, 10256 and 9026 m3.ha-1 in the four studied years, respectively with the average amount of 8759 m3.ha-1. Average four-year maximum crop coefficient was 1.04 at mid-growing season and the minimum one was 0.42 at early-growing season. The highest root yield, sugar yield and sugar percentage was obtained from 162-day growth period (116.8 t.ha-1, 20.36 t.ha-1 and 17.43%, respectively). The lowest ones were obtained from 130-day growth period (52.21 t.ha-1, 8.5 t.ha-1 and 16.26%, respectively). Results revealed that in 130-day growth period, root yield decreased and meanwhile, water use efficiency on the basis root yield and sugar yield was decreased to 7.1 and 1.2 kg.m-3 applied water, respectively. In the longer growth period, water use efficiency on the basis of root yield and sugar yield was 11.4 and 2 kg.m-3 applied water, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • crop coefficient
  • Lysimeter
  • sugar beet
  • Water use efficiency
  • Water requirement
  • yield

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