ارزیابی مدل ET-HS در تعیین نیاز آبی محصول چغندرقند و کارایی مصرف آب در شرایط نیمه‪خشک اصفهان

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیارگروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات- دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد خوراسگان

2 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد خوراسگان- اصفهان- ایران.

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد خوراسگان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

روش هارگریوز- سامانی از جمله روش‌های محاسبه تبخیر و تعرق گیاه بوده که به حداقل داده‌های هواشناسی نیازمند است. به منظور ارزیابی مدل ET-HS در تعیین نیاز آبی محصول چغندرقند در منطقه اصفهان، تحقیقی در سال 1384 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوراسگان اصفهان اجرا درآمد. آزمایش تحقیق به صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار مدیریت آبیاری در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل: 50، 75، 100، 125، 150 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه براساس مدل ET-HS و شاهد براساس 90 میلی‌متر تبخیر از طشتک تبخیر کلاس A در طول فصل رشد بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمارهای آبیاری بر مقدار ماده خشک کل و عملکردریشه معنی‌دار بود. هم‪چنین در تیمار آبیاری معادل 150 درصد نیاز آبی عملکردریشه افزایش پیدا کرد ولیکن درصدقند تا 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه افزایش (هر چند غیرمعنی‪دار) و پس از آن کاهش یافت. عملکرد شکرسفید تا 125 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به میزان 7/8 تن در هکتار به صورت معنی‌داری افزایش و پس از آن با افزایش مصرف آب کاهش یافت. بالاترین کارایی مصرف آب برای عملکرد ریشه در تیمار 50 درصد نیاز آبی حاصل شد. با توجه به دقت مدل ET-HS در تیمار شاهد می‌توان از این مدل برای آبیاری محصول چغندرقند در مناطقی مشابه اصفهان در طی فصل زراعی استفاده کرد و بدون استفاده از داده‌های تبخیر و تعرق و یا داده‌های تخلیه رطوبتی خاک و فقط براساس اطلاعات درجه حرارت هوا نسبت به تعیین نیاز آبی چغندقند اقدام کرد به طوری‪که محصول کاهش نداشته و با مصرف حداقل ممکن آب عملکرد مناسب شکر قابل استحصال را برداشت نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of ET-HS model for estimating water demand and water use efficiency of sugar beet in semi-arid condition of Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Soleymani 1
  • P. Najafi 2
  • M. Dehnavi 3
  • M.H. Shaherjabiyan 3
1 Associate Professor of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Group, Islamic Azad University – Khorasgan Branch
2 Associate Professor of Pedology Group, Islamic Azad University – Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
3 Msc. student for Agronomy and Plant Breeding Group, Islamic Azad University – Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Hargraves-Samani method is one of the methods for calculating plant evapotranspiration that needs minimum meteorological data. In order to evaluate ET-HS model in determining sugar beet crop water demand in Isfahan, an experiment was conducted at research field of Department of Agriculture, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iranin 2005. The study was based a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and six irrigation treatments. Irrigation treatments included irrigation to supply 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model and control on the basis of 90 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan during growing season. Results showed that the effect of irrigation treatment was significant on total dry matter and root yield. In addition, root yield increased in the treatment of irrigation to supply 150% of crop water demand. But, sugar percentage increased up to irrigation to supply 100% of crop water demand albeit insignificantly, and then started to decrease. White sugar yield significantly increased to 8.7 t.ha-1 up to irrigation to supply 100% of crop water demand and then, started to decrease with further increase in irrigation level. The highest water use efficiency for root yield was obtained from the irrigation to supply 50% of crop water demand. Given the precision of ET-HS model in control treatment, it can be used for irrigating sugar beet in such regions as Isfahan and sugar beet water demand can be determined only on the basis of the daily temperature data without using the data of evapotranspiration or soil water depletion, so that the yield does not decrease and the appropriate white sugar yield is obtained by the application of minimum irrigation level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ET-HS model
  • Semi-arid regions
  • sugar beet
  • Water demand
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