بررسی رابطه مکانی بین بانک بذر، جمعیت علف هرز و الگوی پراکنش آن در طول فصل زراعی در مزرعه چغندر قند

نوع مقاله: کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت دانشگاه لرستان

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

3 دانشیار پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات چغندرقند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی رابطه مکانی بین بانک بذر و جمعیت علف هرز و نیز الگوی پراکنش آن در طول فصل زراعی در مزرعه چغندرقند، پژوهشی در سال 1388 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی مهندس مطهری واقع در کمالشهر کرج انجام گرفت. نمونه‎برداری از بانک بذر قبل از کاشت چغندرقند و از گیاهچه‎های علف‎هرز طی سه مرحله در دوره رشد با دو نوع چارچوب مربع(50 در50 سانتی‎متر) و مستطیل (100 در 25 سانتی‎متر) صورت گرفت. در هر دو چارچوب فراوانی بذر علف‪هرز و تراکم بوته به تفکیک گونه شناسایی و ثبت شد. به منظور بررسی ساختار مکانی علف‎های هرز و پویایی لکه‎ها از تکنیک ژئواستاتیستیک استفاده شد. تاج خروس، سلمه‎تره و علف‎های هرز باریک برگ، گونه‎های متداول علف هرز در مزرعه بودند. تجزیه‎ و تحلیل سمی واریوگرام گونه‎های متداول، دامنه تأثیری از 24/0 تا 9/141 متر را نشان داد که بسته به گونه علف‎هـرز و مرحله نمونه‎برداری متغیر بود. تاج‎خروس دارای دامنه تأثیر زیاد به‎ویژه در نمونه برداری دوم گیاهچه‎ها بود. دامنه سلمه‎تره در طول فصل رشد از گونه‎های دیگر کمتر بود. بیشترین اثر قطعه‎ای به میزان 671/1 و 308/1 به ترتیب مربوط به تاج خروس (در نوبت دوم نمونه‎برداری از گیاهچه‎ها) و گونه‎های باریک برگ (در نوبت اول نمونه‎برداری از گیاهچه‎ها) بود، که در هر دو موجب همبستگی مکانی خیلی ضعیف گردید. همبستگی مکانی قوی برای بذور و گیاهچه‎های سلمه‎تره در تمامی مراحل نمونه‎برداری به ثبت رسید. نقشه‎های توزیع مکانی، توزیع لکه‎ای علف‎هرز را تأیید کرد. ساختار لکه‎ها در طی فصل رشد تغییر کرد. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که توزیع مکانی سبب بهبود تصمیم‎گیری‪های مدیریتی و افزایش درک ما از دینامیک جمعیت علف‎های هرز خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial relationships between weed seed bank, and population and their distribution models in sugar beet crop (Beta vulgaris)

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Roham 1
  • N. Akbari 2
  • M. Abdollahian noghabi 3
  • H. R. Eisvand 2
  • M. Yaghubi 1
1 Msc Student, Lorestan University, Iran
2 Assistant professor of Lorestan University, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Iran.
چکیده [English]

A field experiment was conducted to study the spatial relationships between weed seed bank and population and their distribution models in sugar beet crop (Beta vulgaris) in 2009 at Motahari  Agricultural Research Station of Karaj. Sampling from seed bank before sugar beet drilling and weed population in three stages during the growing season were done using square (50*50 cm) and rectangle (25*100 cm) frameworks. Seed and plant frequency of each weed species were recorded in the both frameworks. Geostatistics technique was used to investigate the local structure of the weeds and dynamic of the spots. Amaranth, lambsquarter and narrow-leaf weeds were the prevalent weed species in the field. Semi-variogram analysis showed a range of influence from 0.24 to 141.9 m depending on weed species and sampling stage. The highest range of influence belonged to amaranth, especially in the second stage of seedling sampling. Lambsquarter had a lowest range of influence between all weeds. The highest nugget effect (1.671 and 1.308) was observed for amaranth (at second sampling from seedlings) and narrow leaf-weeds (at the first sampling from seedlings), respectively. This led to weak local correlation for amaranth and narrow-leaf weeds.  Strong local correlation was recorded for seed and seedling of lambsquarter at all sampling stages. Spot distribution of weeds was confirmed by local distribution maps. Spots structure changed during the growing season. Results suggested that weed local distribution could improve management decisions and comprehension of dynamic of weeds populations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • amaranth
  • Geostatistics
  • Lambsquarter
  • Weeds population dynamic
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